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Full text of "The city of Indianapolis ; its advantages as a manufacturing and trading point : Report to the Common Council of Indianapolis, July 16, 1870"

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Indianapolis is the Geographical center of the 
great Western Plateau, which embraces the whole of 
the States of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and covers 
an area of over 130,000 square miles, from all parts 
of which 15 different lines of Eailway center into the 
city. Ninety-four passen ger trains arrfve and depart 
daily from her magnificent Union Depot, and her 
freight business will average over 3,000 cars per day. 

The population of Indianapolis has doubled one 
and one-half, and her wealth quadrupled in the last 
ten years; her present unprecedented growth insures 
the same result for the next five years. 

Indianapolis having no rival city on the South 
nearer than 125 miles, and on the North, East and 
West nearer than 200 miles, has, within the last eight 
years, made herself the great wholesale depot within 
a diameter of over 200 miles. Her shipping facilities 
are very convenient, as her Railroads run to almost 
every County in the State, and over one million of the 
inhabitants of the State can come to Indianapolis and 
remain from 3 to 10 hours and return home the same 
day. Her business blocks are unsurpassed in solidity 
and magnificence by but few in the country, while the 
residences of her merchants and manufacturers would 
compare favorably with those of Fifth Avenue. The 
city possesses all the advantages of Gas, Water Works, 
Street Railways and Sewerage. 

The recently discovered wealth of the immense 
mineral deposits of the State- (within 40 miles of the 
City,) show excellent Iron Ore in large quantities, 
and an unlimited supply of the finest Block Coal for 
fluxing iron ore, or for general manufacturing purpo- 
1, which is monthly causing the removal to the City, 
from Eastern points, of numerous manufacturing en- 
terprises and the establishing of new ones. 

The taxables of the City amount to over ($40,- 
000,000) forty million dollars. 
The State is out of debt. 

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Dealer in all Ttvdiana Securities, 
and Real Estate, 


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Trading Point. 

Report to the Common Council of Indianapolis, July 16, 1870 



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rate of interest, on the best Real Estate Security. 







Indianapolis, July i6, 1870. 
To the Mayor and Members of the Common Council of 
the City of Indianapolis: 

Gentlemen — 

On the 24th of March, 1870, the following resolution 
was adopted, and His Honor, the Mayor, appointed 
the subscribers as the Commitee in pursuance thereof: 

''Resolved, That a select Committee be appointed by 
the Mayor, with instructions to prepare, and have pub- 
lished at the city's expense, a pamphlet setting forth 
the advantages of Indianapolis as a manufacturing city, 
and that such report contain all the available statistics' 
on the subject, and, in order to obtain the same, such 
committee be authorized to employ, at a reasonable 
xpense, one or more persons to assist in preparing 
tne report. That when such report is ready such num- 
ber of copies of the same as the Council may order 

printed, and furnished our business men and citi- 
zens for general circulation." 



In pursuance of the instructions contained in the 
resolution, your Committee have caused to be pre- 
pared a very full and authentic statement setting forth 
the great resources, still undeveloped, of the ^State of 
Indiana, and tlie great advantages of the city of Indi- 
anapolis as the recognized metropolis of the State — 
the commercial center and political capital — as a man- 
ufacturing, trading and distributing point. To more 
fully demonstrate this claim of ours, our railroads and 
their connections with the mines and forests of our 
State are clearly set forth, and, to aid the reader, a 
railroad map, a geological map, and a map of our ov/n 
clt)' are added. 

Your Committee are indebted to Prof. R. T. Brown 
for many facts relating to the topography and geology 
of our State, and tojgnatius Brown, Esq., for the prep- 
aration of the maps, and for valuable services rendered 
in collecting the facts herein presented. 

Austin H. Brown, 
Wm. D. Wiles, 
Erie Locke, 

Select Committee. 



'^ffij^pl^ intelligent and unprejudiced reader will find' 
in the pages that follow, many solid facts to sustain 
the claim of the now greatest inland city of 
^ America, to become, at no distant day, one of the 
great manufacturing and trading points of the Union. 
With natural and artificial advantages superior to all other 
competing cities, her resources have but just begun to be 
developed, and comparing her present prosperity with her 
past history — o, history full of many discouragements — it is 
safe to predict that since the discovery of block coal near 
at hand 'and with the advantages she now has, by reason of 
increased railroad facilities, the population of Indianapolis 
will be doubled in the next five years and her manufactur- 
ing and trading facilities increased correspondingly. 

Attention is called to the following facts, and the fullest 
investigation invited as to their correctness and importance: 

First. — The geographical position which Indiana occu- 
pies, compels every great, profitable, continental railway to 
pass over her surface, and the position Indianapolis has in 
the State is such that these highways must pass through 
that city, or be tapped at every point by her railways. 

Second. — Indianapolis, by her local system of competing 
railroads, with their branches and connections, so permeates 
every portion of Indiana and neighboring States, that the 
people, in almost every township in a circle of two hundred 




miles in diameter, can do their shopping in Indianapolis, 
without sleeping away from home, coming from and return- 
ing home the same day. The daily retail trade of such an 
area is incalculable. 

Third. — By means of her local and general system of 
railways, Indianapolis commands at all times and seasons 
the most varied markets and should become the greatest 
distributing and wholesaleing point in the west. 

Fourth. — Indianapolis occupies the center of a great re- 
gion remarkable for the fertility and durability of its soil, — 
even in the coal-fields. Its varied agricultural products, 
its level and generally well drained surface, its forests, its 
pure water, good health, and its capacity to feed an im- 
mense dense population, make it a desirable home, while 
the city site is such that it may be extended many miles, 
giving to both capital and labor cheap homes and cheap 
■rents for dwellings, business houses, or factories. 

Fifth. — Indianapolis lies in the center of the greatest and 
best supply of hardwood timber on the continent, and will 
eoon be in direct railway connection with the pine district 
of Central Michigan. She, also, commands unlimited sup- 
plies of the best building stone, clays, sand and gravel, for 
building or other uses. 

Sixth. — By-means of five competing railways and their 
branches Indianapolis controls the best, the cheapest, the 
largest and the /nearest supply of fuel, especially fitted for 
manufacturing and iron-working, in this country, and will 
beyond a doubt be able to obtain selected varieties of fuel 
and ores, at rates generally cheaper than those prevalent at 
the pit-mouth of mines. Within the next century our coal 
field will become, like the English coal fields, a succession 
of cities and large towns, connected in all directions by rail- 
ways, and Indianapolis must inevitably be the great market 
iind central point — the Birmingham of the whole region. 



Possessing all the foregoing advantages are we not justi- 
fied in claiming for Indianapolis, with her population of 
over fifty thousand, a proud pre-eminence as a manufactur- 
ing and trading point and also, justified in asking business 
men to cast their lot with us and assist in developing here 
the mighty resources around us? 


To more clearly set forth the advantages of Indianapolis 
as a manufacturing and commercial point, it will first be 
necessary to consider the position and resources of the re- 
gion tributary to the city, together with its means of trans- 

In an examination of this kind the peculiar location 
which Indiana occupies to the Union at once attracts at- 
tention and impresses the mind by its importance. The 
vast extent of Lake Michigan on the north, the broken 
country of the Ohio river to the south — and the mountain 
regions of Kentucky to the south-east will, inevitably, com- 
pel all great east and west railway lines to cross this State, 
and the same causes will, also, force the great southern 
trade and travel over our borders. This result is secured, 
not only by the topography of the country, but, also, by 
climatic influences, for no great continental line can ulti- 
mately succeed which battles the drifting snows of the 
north or encounters the sand-storms of the southern des- 
erts. The only profitable route must run through the cen- 
tral districts and in any event, Indiana lies in the direct 
path of Empire over which a ITation's traffic and travel 
must pass. 


The progress this region has made in the last twenty 
years in wealth and population, is due to the construction 



of railways through a rich country inhabited by energetic 
people. The improvement however, has been attained by 
the expenditure of great labor and capital, for in no other 
State has the struggle with nature been more severe. In 
the prairies the pioneer found the soil ready for the plow, 
while here he began a life long struggle to effect that ob- 
ject, and too often found when his farm was cleared, that 
its products were valueless for want of roads to market. This 
want was so pressing that when the rivers began to faily 
the State commenced a grand system of railroads and can- 
als on borrowed money, and when failure resulted from 
trying to build too many at once, the people sunk for the 
time under the grevious disappointment and the immense 
debt. But they rallied from this soon afterward, and ar- 
ranged for the payment of their debt. They also formed 
companies and built the abandoned State works, organized 
and built several great charitable institutions, and accumu- 
lated the greatest school fund in the country. Thus they 
retrieved their speculative enterprizes, and when the rebel- 
lion began had largely reduced the public debt, and had 
finished the most complete railway system in the Union. 
It is unnecessary here to state the part Indiana took in the 
war, but since it ended she has largely extended her rail- 
ways and has nearly extinguished her debt. The people in 
the meantime have so developed the agricultural and min- 
eral wealth and extended the manufacturing interests that 
the taxables have increased 250 per cent, in twelve or fif- 
teen years, while the actual cash values have probably in- 
creased 750 per cent, in the same. period. The forest has 
become the farm, villages have grown to cities and the ob- 
scure muddy town of twenty years since is now the pros- 
perous capital of a great growing commonwealth, and the 
largest inland city in ^^"orth America. 

We can proudly claim this improvement as due solely to 



the eflbrts of our own people. Many sunk millions of dol- 
lars, in principal and interest, in their first futile effort to 
obtain highways, and though weighted with debt, have 
since sunk the first cost of all their present roads merely to 
obtain them. It has long been the fashion to deride our 
State and her people, and no help either in money or praise 
has been tendered toward her material development, while 
immense sums have been lavishly loaned and lost in aiding 
adjacent regions north and west of us, but for twenty years 
Indiana has steadily moved onward, defying detraction, 
repairing disaster, asking and getting no favors, and at last 
•compelling universal respect. To-day, in every solid ele- 
ment of greatness, she stands ahead of all her neighbors, 
and begins a career of manufacturing prosperity unexam- 
pled in the national history. 


Coal is by far our most important mineral product, for on 
the certain and permanent su{)ply of good and cheap fuel 
must depend all manufacturing success. We earnestly af- 
firm that in this respect Indiana is unrivalled. In another 
part of this publication the extent and general features of 
our coal field and the leading advantages claimed for the 
eoal miner or proprietor and for the consumer in this State 
are stated and specified, but in this connection a reference 
to the peculiar merits of our splint or block coal, in the 
working of iron and for general use under boilers and in 
grates may not be out of place. 

The general advantages possessed by Indiana in regard 
to good and cheap fuel, may be stated as follows : 

First As to 'permanency of supply. This is rendered 
<jertain by the remarkable uniformity and reliability of the 
leading coal seams in their position, their thickness and 



tlieir quality, over the whole field of eight thousand square 

Second. As to safety in mining and cheapness in production 
and sale. These points are insured by the nearness of the 
beds to the surface, their slight depth, their freedom from 
faults or dislocations, and from gas or foul air, and the fact 
that all have good slate roofs and clay floors, and in some 
instances the floors and roofs also have great economic value, 
or are associated with valuable iron ores. 

Third. Another important advantage consists in the 
fact that the soils of the coal measures will furnish cheap 
and abundant food to the mining population above and 
below the surface. Mine owners will at once admit the 
importance of this fact. 

Fourth. The greatest advantage of all, consists in the 
peculiar adaptation of the Indiana coals to all branches of 
iron manufacture, as well as to general uses — and this- is 
claimed as their great and distinguishing merit, the one to 
which attention will be especially called. 

The combination of the above advantages is unequaled 
in any other single coal field in this country, and it inevita- 
bly insures the permanent, safe and cheap production of 
coal withmit the use of expensive machinery. 


As to the accessibility of the coal field it may be said 
that ultimately almost every square mile of it will be reached 
by branches and connections from the five separate railways 
• crossing it at different points and converging at Indianapo- 

lis. There is little 'doubt that the competition between the 
railways, and also between the mining companies will ena- 
ble the consumer at Indianapolis to select the choicest and 
cheapest coals for any particular use from among scores of 
mining localities, at prices often less than those prevailing 



at the pit-mouth. As to the accessibiUty of the coals in 
the mines, it may be said that in few fields are they so- 
readily mined, at so little cost and with such inexpensive 
and simple machinery. Most of the beds are mined by 
drifting along the outcrop, or by very shallow shafts and 
from their slight dip, few faults, and nearness to the sur- 
face, are at little cost kept dry, free from water and gas or 
foul air. The coal also has marked cleavage planes across 
the vein enabhng the miner to bring it down in large blocks 
by the pick, seldom needing to use wedge or powder. 

The field covers about eight thousand square miles, with 
twelve to fifteen seams of an aggregate thickness of at 
least thirty feet. These beds are not all equally workable, 
or valuable, nor are the same beds equally valuable at all 
points, but we may safely assume that there are eight feet 
of good coal over the entire field which, at the rate of one 
million tons per foot to the square mile, gives us about sixty- 
five thousand millions of tons, an amount that will sup- 
ply all reasonable demands for thousands of years, and 
worth at only $1.50 per ton the sum of about $100,000,000,- 
000, an amount so great that the mind cannot properly 
grasp it. At least one-third of this vast store may be 
classed with the block coals, and we can truly say that in 
all probability we have more of this fine fuel than all the 
rest of the continent combined. Hitherto our coal has 
been undeveloped and our wealth unknown. Clay county 
only has possessed a market for her product, which in a 
few years has risen to 275,000 tons annually. The whole 
region is in its infancy, and coal mining has just begun. 
Instead of one road Indianapolis will soon have five roads 
traversing the entire width of the field on as many separate 
lines, developing all the beds and afibrding investments for 
any amount of capital in iron making and general man- 




It is the. quality of our coals however, that gives them 
their value, and that has lately drawn general attention to 
them. Their value has long been known to a few men in 
the State, and for many years unsuccessful efforts have been 
made to draw capital to them, but not till lately, when 
practical trial demonstrated their merits, have the iron man- 
ufacturers given them the consideration they deserved. All 
the usual varieties of bituminous and coking coals are fur- 
nished by our different seams or from different localities on 
the same seam. Thousands of loca.tions will be developed 
where good coal for ordinary domestic use will be mined; 
very many will be found where a good hard steam coal will 
be raised, and still others where the best quality of gas coal 
will be had in the greatest abundance. All these kinds can 
be had in any quantity on any of the railways from Indi- 
anapolis, and their production will be delivered and sold 
there about as cheaply as at the pit-mouth, with the added 
advantage of selection from among many kinds and locali- 
ties. All these varieties are so generally known that they 
need not be described, but the nature and uses of block 
coal, the peculiar glory of our field, are not so well under- 
stood, and may be fully stated. 

"Block coal" — so called from its coming from the seam 
in large slabs or cubic masses, whose sides are usually 
stained with iron rust — is a free burning, non-caking, light, 
laminated bituminous coal, free from sulphur, with a splin- 
ty fracture, and composed of alternate thin layers of soft 
pulverized charcoal and pure cannel coal, the whole being 
filled with a light oil or naptha which causes it to take fire 
readily, burning freely with a yellowish white flame and 
leaving only a small amount of white ashes, similar to wood 
ashes. It neither cakes, melts^ or smells in burning, but 



retains form and fire until reduced to ashes, leaving no cin- 
der or clinkers whatever. Being finely laminated it cannot 
bear long exposure to the weather, for it separates readily 
into thin sheets along the layers, though breaking with dif- 
ficulty across them, the cross fracture showing alternate 
thin dull black and shining black strata. From its free 
burning, great fiaming quality, it is the best of steam coals, 
difiusing heat over a great boiler surface and utilizing all 
the efiects of combustion, but its peculiar merit lies in its 
not changing form while burning, and its freedom from 
sulphur, thus making it the best of all fuel for smelting and 
working iron, allowing the heat to penetratate all parts of 
the inflamed mass and never choking or clogging in the 
stack. Practical use for several years in the Clay county 
furnaces has demonstrated its value beyond all question, 
and the iron made there with it brings the highest prices 
on any iron offered in the Indianapolis and Pittsburgh mar- 
kets. The coal is easily mined, being separated in the vein 
by a series of cross vertical fissures which separate it into 
the "blocks" from which it takes its name. These fissures 
enable the miner to separate it from the mass by his pick 
and the face of the vein in mining presents a front of reg- 
ular angles. 

Coals of a similar character are found and extensively 
used in the furnaces along the Mahoning valley in Ohio, 
but we can justly claim that our coal is the best in quality, 
the greatest in quantity, and the most persistent in thick- 
ness and character over large surfaces, of any now known 
in the country. There are two or three main beds and two 
subordinate beds, already known. The lower bed under- 
lies the whole field, and the upper beds occupy almost as 
extensive an area, and the sum total of the block coal may 
be safely fixed at one-third of the entire estimate of the 
contents of the whole field, or more than twenty thousaud 



millions of tons. This almost unlimited supply of the best 
fuel in the world for working iron, is laid under contribu- 
tion to Indianapolis by five separate railways crossing its 
field in different directions, and these lines and their bran- 
ches and connections bring all parts of it within two or 
three hours time of the city. Before a century elapses the 
whole region — like the English districts — will become a wil- 
derness of chimneys, smoking by day and flaming at night, 
a continuous village, traversed by numerous railways, all 
directly or indirectly converging at Indianapolis, taking 
thither or bearing thence the immense wealth we have 
mentioned and inevitably making it the Birmingham of 
America. With such resources added to her grain, live 
stock, timber, stone and ores, of which mention is hereto- 
fore made, do we claim too much in saying, that Indiana 
must become the great industrial center of the Middl^e 
States, and that the great manufacturing city of the country 
will inevitably lie within her borders? 


But if Indiana does possess such resources, by what 
channels, natural or otherwise, can they be reached, and 
made available? We may first briefly mention the natural 
channels for trade, for their condition and position governed 
the railway and canal system afterwards adopted. The 
State is well provided with channels for external trade, as it 
has Lake Michigan on the north, the Wabash on the west, 
and the Ohio along the entire south line. The sections 
adjacent to these outlets enjoyed good markets from the 
State and rapidly developed in wealth and population, but 
the fertile interior, overproductive and shut in by lack of 
good roads, stagnated for years in muddy isolation while 
trade and travel rolled by on either side. It is impossible 
with our present railway facilities to appreciate the condi- 



tion of the place twenty-five years ago. It was surrounded 
most of tlie year by a swamp twenty to fifty miles in ex- 
tent, with corduroyed roads over which it was impossible 
to take a wheeled vehicle, and on which a horseman would 
sometimes be ten days or two weeks in reaching the river 
towns. The only natural channels to the interior were the 
Kankakee on the north, the "Wabash and forks of White 
river in the centre, and the Whitewater in the sonth-east 
part of the State. These were all much used by flats and 
keel-boats, and on the Wabash and lower White river a 
large trade was done by steamboats, but the clearing of the 
country soon diminished the size of the rivers and com- 
pelled the people to seek other means of communication. 
They devised a grand State system of canals and railways, 
which would have given the interior safe, certain and cheap 
channels to the natural outlets heretofore mentioned, but 
erred in attempting to build all of them simultaneously, 
and after spending vast sums of money abandoned them 
all in an unfinished condition. The system itself was 
planned with rare wisdom, and its general features were 
subsequently adopted and completed by private companies, 
thus giving to Indiana the best local railway system in the 

After several years of lethargy and mismanagement the 
State surrendered part of her public work in part payment 
of her debts, and gave the rest to private companies. A 
railroad fever prevailed among the people for several years, 
resulting in. the completion of a fine State system of roads, 
but sinking all of the cost to the original projectors and 
stockholders. The system then finished yet exists, but 
modified and extended as part of the great continental 
transportation system. In another part of this publication 
this system is noticed in detail — beginning first with the 
lines of road now running directly to Indianapolis, and com- 



pleting it with those centering there — and a full and com- 
plete idea given of the means by which the resources of 
the whole State can be grasped and made available by the 
trader and manufacturer. 

That Indianapolis occupies a central position not only in 
the State but, also, in the continental system of railways is 
demonstrated by a careful examination of the accompany- 
ing map.* From the map it is evident, at a glance, that 
the traveler in almost any part of the State will have to 
pass through Indianapolis to get to any other part of the 
State. Twelve separate, finished railways enter the city, 
with an additional one in course of construction, with com- 
panies organized to build two others and with three long 
proposed branches from lines already built. These roads 
radiate from Indianapolis like spokes in a wheel, cutting 
every railway in the State and connecting with all import- 
ant roads in the country. The reader who^ has closely fol- 
lowed the statement and consulted the map, must admit 
our claim that Indiana has the most perfect system of roads 
in the Union, and that no other city equals Indianapolis in 
its railway facilities. Eighty out of the ninety-two coun- 
ties in the State are now, and in a short time five more will 
be possessed of railways, allowing their inhabitants to leave 
home in the morning, visit Indianapolis on pleasure or bus- 
iness and return the same day, and of the remaining seven 
counties probably two-thirds of their people are within ten 

*The map referred to is a copy of a part of Appleton's general railway 
map— the correctness of which is conceded everywhere — and correctly lays 
down the outlines of the States, the position of all cities and towns, lakes 
and rivers, and the general course, length and position of all the railway 
lines. The only changes made in the map are to put on the proposed roads in 
this State, and to leave off the less important lines and branches outside of 
Indiana, the object being to show only the Indiana roads and their chief outside 
connecting lines. The roads centering at Indianapolis are made., more promi- 
nent to show the local or Indiana system of railways. This local system is 
also, prominently, shown on the geological map accompanying this article. 



to twelve miles o"f railway lines. These facts show how 
quickly and easily this city can reaoh the eight hundrecl 
thousand inhabitants of the State, together with several 
hundred thousands in the adjacent States, and how com- 
pletely it can supply them with all manufactured articles or 
give them a market for their products. At no other point 
can so great an amount of rolling stock be so soon concen- 
trated, or so many men be collected or carried away. This 
is proved by the great political conventions, and State fairs 
where from twenty to forty thousand people are brought 
here and taken away the same day, without trouble or ac- 
cidents, or confusion. This advantage was fully recognized 
by the government during the war, when the city was made 
the great depot and supply point for ordnance and stores 
for the southern and western armies — and one of the great 
arsenals of the nation has since been permanently located 
here. We claim that it is pre-eminently the railway city 
and center of the country. Chicago is too far north to be 
central, St. Louis is too far west, and Louisville or ISTash- 
ville too far south, — but we occupy the middle point be- 
tween them all, with vast reaches of railway in all direc- 
tions, with the four great eastern railway routes concentrat- 
ing here, and diverging again on their westward course, 
while the great southern and southwestern lines aim direct- 
ly here, and from here connect with the eastern routes. It 
is needless for us to specify the number of miles of rail- 
ways and connections centering at Indianapolis, for the 
same comprises all the roads in Indiana', and all the lead- 
ing lines beyond her bordei^. 

Such being the position of Indianapolis with reference 
to the resources and railways of the State and adjacent re- 
gion, WG may briefly mention the past history, the present 
growth and the future prospects of the citty. 




Indiauapolis the political, commercial and social cap- 
ital of Indiana lies on the east bank of White river, 
nearly in the center of the State, in the midst of a wide 
shallow basin, or level table land composed of drift gravel 
and clay, from fifteen to eighty feet above the streams. 
The surface was once heavily timbered, and is dry and easi- 
ly drained. The original site of two thousand five hundred 
and sixty acres, given by the government for a permanent 
Capital, was long since built over, and additions have been 
made from a half mile to a mile in all directions, and the 
surface is so favorable that the city may be still further ex- 
tended for miles in any quarter, especially along the rail- 
ways, thus affording cheap homes for laboring men, and 
sites for factories. The city plan is generally very regular, 
(see the accompanying map) with wide, straight, level, well 
shaded and improved streets, large blocks, and man}^ public 
squares. Though laid out in 1820 and adopted as the Cap- 
ital in 1825, the town was so far in the wilderness that it 
grew very slowly until 1848, when its first railroad was fin- 
ished, and not till the completion of the local system of 
roads in 1854, did its growth fairly begin. This growth, 
somewhat checked in 1860 by the war, was revived in 1863, 
and checked again in 1866, was resumed in 1868, and is 
now going on faster than ever. The population in 1848 
was about 4,000, in 1850, 8,000, in 1860, 18,000 in 1870 it 
is estimated at 55,000 — making it the largest inland city on 
the continent. This growth in population is solid and reli- 
able, and the growth in wealth also has been equally great 
and permanent. The valuation of Center Township (which 
may be said to include the city and its suburbs) was $1,- 
867,843 in 1847; §2,164,585 in 1850; $12,144,434 in 1860, 
and $29,649,030 in 1870. The actual values have grown 



much faster than the assessment, and it would be safe 
to double if not treble the present assessment to find the 
cash values. Settled originally by poor men, and never 
having (as other cities had) the assistance of outside capital 
in its development, this city has been created by the labor 
and capital of its own residents. It has advanced steadily 
and solidly, has kept free of debt and is now entering on a 
career more promising and certain than that of any other 
western city. 


The health of Indianapolis is a strong point in its favor, 
the death rate being smaller than in any other place of 
equal size in the Union. This is due partly to the people, 
and largely to the high, level, well drained surface, the pure 
water, the wide streets and the numerous open squares in 
the city. 


Indianapolis is also noted for its charities, its Sunday 
Schools, and its churches, all denominations being repre- 
sented, and the sittings accommodating a greater per cent- 
age of the people than is usual. 

The graded free^ school system, the growth of the last 
ten years, is the boast of the people; being equal to any in 
the country, the course of study requiring twelve years, and 
giving the children a good education. This school system 
is annually becoming more effective, and wide spread in its 
results, and is attracting residents from other places who 
desire to give their children a sound mental training. The 
number of school buildings, of teachers and of scholars, is 
increasing with great rapidity. Fifteen buildings are occu- 
pied by the public schools, requiring over one hundred 
teachers in educating six thousand children. 



The charitable institutions of the city and State are lo- 
cated in and near the city limits and are extensive and well 
managed. The asylum for the insane, the blind, the deaf 
and dumb, and the house of correction for females, are all 
State institutions, the buildings being extensive and costly. 
Among the institutions supported by the city, or by pri- 
vate enterprize for charitable or educational purposes are 
the City Hospital, the Orphan Asylum, the Home for 
Friendless Women, the ]N"ortliwestrn Christian University, 
Indiana Female College, Surgical Institute, St. Jolin's Hos- 
pital, Indiana Medical College, the Public and several large 
denominational schools. • 

The public improvements in the last ten or fifteen years 
have been extensive and valuable, embracing many good 
bridges over the streams, a number of market and engine 
houses, many miles of graded, graveled or bouldered streets 
and alleys. The Mcolson pavement has lately been 
adopted for some of the streets, gas pipes have been ex- 
tended all over the city and the public lights extend where- 
ever the pipes have been laid. The drainage hitherto has 
been eflected by surface drains ^alone, but a complete sys- 
tem of sewerage has lately been adopted and its construc- 
tion ordered. A water works company has been organized 
and the pipes will be largely laid the present season and 
the system put in operation. 

The want of parks has hitherto been somewhat obviated 
by the wide shaded streets, and by the numerous public 
squares ; five of these squares contain each four acres, there 
is also one of sixteen acres, one of eight aci'es, a college 
campus of twenty acres, the U. S. Arsenal grounds of eighty 
acres, and a few others. Most of these grounds have been 
or are now being laid out and planted as parks, and already 
present a beautiful appearance. Steps will doubtless soon 



be taken to secure additional park room, and provide fully 
for the future in that respect, by the opening and improv- 
ing of a public park near the city containing not less than 
two hundred acres. 

Our manufactures are of recent growth, mostly within 
five or ten years for only since then has a market been 
sought beyond the city. A rapid development has occurred 
in this period however, and almost all industrial pursuits 
are now represented. As the fabrication increased the de- 
mand has grown, and each new establishment finds a mar- 
ket for its utmost product, and full employment for its cap- 
ital. This growth of our manufactures has taken place 
under adverse conditions, for until recently we have had 
but one road to the coal field and the price of fuel has been 
higher than it ever should have been, thus crippling and 
retarding our manufactures. This monopoly is now gone 
forever. A great competing line is now opened close along- 
side the first, and a third line nearly parallel, lies but a few 
miles north of the others, and to secure us against any pos- 
sible combination, two other lines have just been opened 
through other parts of the field. It is thus impossible that 
we shall ever again be at the mercy of one corporation, or 
of one set of mine owners, but we have the choice of all 
the mines in all parts of the coal field, thus selecting the 
best of all kinds of coal, and we have five separate railways 
competing for the carriage of the coals. By these roads 
and their branches and connectiDg lines we shall have 
almost every square mile of the field brought within two 
to four hours of this city, and we believe we are justified 
in saying that the manufacturer and consumer at this point 
will be able to obtain the best coals at less price than they 
would have to pay within the coal field itself, on any one 

line of road. This is evident from the competition that 
C. 1.-^2 



must exist between the hundreds of coal mining companies 
or proprietors, and between the railway companies. 

The following leading manufactures have been mostly 
developed in the last ten or fifteen years, — those of iron 
being the most important. There are in operation two 
large rolling mills, one for railway bars and one for mer- 
chant iron, three or four founderies for heavy castings and 
engines, three or four for light castings and stoves, two or 
three brass and bell factories, four or five engine and boiler 
factories, several shops for heavy forging and jail work, 
many steam and gas fitting establishments, copper smiths, 
file works, saw factories, plow factories, iron fence works, 
agricultural implement works, railroad shops, and other 
branches of the iron trade. All these are busy and pros- 
perous, and the demand for their products exceed the sup- 
jply and other establishments are needed. We need blast 
furnaces to supply the great demand for pig iron, we need 
additional founderies, rolling mills, boiler shops, locomotive 
works, Bessemer steel works, nail factories, cannon found- 
ries, car wheel works, plow works, car factories, and all 
other establishments in which iron is largely used as the 
leading material. We earnestly urge persons or companies 
interested in any branch of manufacture in metals to give 
Indianapolis a careful examination before locating elsewhere, 
for if examined we have no doubt of the result as to their 
location here. 

For smelting iron or copper there can be no doubt as to 
the superior advantages possessed by Indianapolis. The 
facilities for getting cheap coal have been mentioned, and it 
may now be observed that equal facilities exist for getting 
' cheap ores, which may be selected from any portion of the 
field along the different roads, and brought here with the 
ferrugineous Hmestone, (found in many places) which can 
be used for fluxing. The Missouri ores also can be brought 



over several competing roads, and the Lake Superior iron 
ores or copper may also be brought from ports on Lakes 
Michigan or Erie by several competing roads from either 
lake. At what other point in the west do these combined 
advantages exist, or at what point so near the sources of 

The facilities for manufactures in wood at Indianapolis 
are herein stated, and they are now generally admitted. 
The lumber and timber trade is fast assuming gigantic pro- 
portions. More than a score of mills in and near the city, 
and hundreds more in the timbered sections are busily saw- 
ing for this market. The product is consumed in our plan- 
ing, flooring and siding mills, door, blind, sash, lath and 
shingle factories, and factories for cornices, brackets, frames, 
mouldings, chairs and furniture, pianos, trunks, boxes, 
wooden ware, cooperage, wagon and carriage wheels, plow 
handles, lasts and pegs, spokes and hubs, carriages and 
wagons, agricultural implements, and many other lines of 
work. Many of these establishments are among the largest 
in the West and of these may be mentioned the Sarven 
Wheel Works, and all are doing an increasing and prosper- 
ous business. Any number of wood working establish- 
ments however are needed here, and at this point only, in 
all the wide Union, can they be at once in the centre of 
their material and their markets. Any manufacturer in 
wood who passes by Indianapolis to locate elsewhere is 
blind to his own interests. Manufacturers of street and 
railway cars and of all kinds of agricultural implements, 
are especially wanted, and the opening here for their suc- 
cessful career is perfectly safe and certain. Any number 
of cars almost, can be sold to the railways, and scores of 
thousands of plows, threshers, reapers, mowers, &c., are an- 
nually sold in the region tributary to this point. An im- 
mense amount of walnut lumber xmd timber, and of coop- 



erage is now shipped to the east and to Europe, but it would 
be better for all parties if the raw material was worked up 
here and the manufactured articles only exported, thus sav- 
ing transportation and increasing our manufactures. 

"We also claim that Indianapolis possesses great advan- 
tages for the manufacture of all textile fabrics. Experience 
has proved that the greater part of the State is peculiarly 
suited to the rearing of fine woolled sheep, and a constantly 
increasing product is marketed here, and used in several 
large factories at this point. These establishments are 
turning out fine goods and have a wide spread reputation, 
while their production is annually increasing, and the man- 
ufacture very successful in a pecuniary point of view. A 
large cotton mill has recently been completed, and is already 
being largely extended in space and machinery, to meet the 
growing demand for its product. There is every reason 
why this point should largely manufacture cotton goods for 
the whole west, being so centrally situated as to the mar- 
kets, with the cheapest fuel in the country, and command- 
ing the whole cotton growing section by its southern rail- 
ways. It is admitted that the cotton product is at present 
largely pursuing its course over our railways to the eastern 
factories, and that it must cost much more to get it there 
than here, and more to manufacture it, while the product 
must return to this section for a market. All this will be 
avoided and the cotton goods made cheaper at this city, in 
the midst of the consumers. 

Establishments for making fire brick, stone and queens- 
ware, and terra cotta work, are much wanted and could do 
a large business. A large glass factory has recently been 
started and is now doing a successful business and is at 
once to be extended. Other establishments of the same 
kind are talked of, and w^e earnestly ask manufacturers of 
all lines of glass goods to visit us and examine our facilities. 



Several extensive strata of sand rock and sand are found 
within thirty to sixty miles of the city on three or four dif- 
ferent railroads, and fitted for the fabrication of all the va- 
rieties of glass. 1^0 better material exists in the country, 
and at several points in our coal field are fine clays for 
making the pots better than have yet been used elsewhere. 
These facts are proved by the experience of the factory in 
operation here, and are given as the result of full trials. 

It will be admitted by every one that manufacturers suc- 
ceed best and must finally centralize in districts where good 
and cheap food, low rents, healthy homes, and social and 
educational advantages, are freely extended, and easily at- 
tainable; where skilled labor is willing to go, where the 
producing point is central if possible to its markets, where 
transportation is quick and cheap, and above all, where un- 
limited supplies of fuel and materials are the best and the 
cheapest. 'No proposition is clearer, and no result more 
certain than this. 

The following tables have been prepared from the very 
meagre returns, as compared with the actual products and 
sales, made to the Assessor of Internal Revenue, and are 
given for the purpose of showing the extent and variety of 
the manufactures and sales of Indianapolis. The many 
changes in the Revenue laws, by which many articles assessed 
one year were exempted the succeeding year, make these 
returns so unreliable that they can only give the reader an 
idea of the extent of the business done at this point. The 
actual facts, if obtainable w^ould greatly increase the totals 
of manufactures and sales. 


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Gross sales of Merchandize in the City of Indianapolis for the 
year 1869, as reported to the Assessor of Internal Bevenue. 

Agricultural Implements $ 295,413 

Sewing Machines 320,247 

Lumber 130,177 

Books and Stationery 228,096 

Dry Doods and Notions (partly estimated) 2,974,418 

Tinners' Stock 157,724 

Queensware 159,333 

Groceries 2,G9G,079 

Tobacco 651,250 

Liquors 536,632 

Drugs , 745,802 

Boots and Shoes 1,004,792 

Clothing 229,071 

Hats and Caps 15,645 

Hardware (reports for less than half the year) ' 623,595 

Millinery and Fancy Goods 70,235 

Carpets, &c 361,324 

Toys and Notions 244,336 

Confectionery 203,510 

Leather 172,898 

General Produce 36,787 

Grain (only one report) 169,355 

Commission Brokers' Sales 45.227 

Auction Sales 70,235 





Geological sketch) AND RAILWAY SYSTEM. 


Indiana lies in the great valley in the midst of the Cen- 
tral States, between the lakes and the Ohio. In area she 
comprises 23,350,000 acres, nearly all of which may be 
made available for mining, grazing or farming purposes. 
The surface is generally level and but slightly elevated 
above the lakes or rivers, rising at no point over five hun- 
dred feet above their plane, or more than one thousand feet 
above the sea. The State may be divided into three topo- 
graphical sections, termed the Lake, the Ohio river and the 
Central sections. The Central section — which comprises 
nearly all of the State — is drained in a southwesterly direc- 
tion by the Wabash and its affluents, chief among which is 
White River, which by its east and west forks drains the 
central and southern portions. This river system proves 
the State to be a wide shallow basin, reaching from a line 
about twenty miles northwest of and parallel to the Wa- 
bash to the Ohio, whose abrupt bluffs, towering nearly five 
hundred feet along the south line, reach the highest eleva- 
tion in the State, and through whose gorges short rapid 
streams find their way to the river below. 

The Lake section (subdivided into an east and west sec- 
tion) reaches from the Lake and north line nearly to the 
Wabash and a similar region extends west and north some 
distance beyond Chicago. The western section is nearly on 
the Lake level, flat and swampy, traversed by long, low, 



Bandy ridges covered with small trees, the spaces between 
the ridges being filled with swamps, or in the eastern sec- 
tion with small permanent lakes. The Kankakee, the Cal- 
umet, and the Iroquois, deep, sluggish, winding streams, 
frequently spreading into swamps or lakes, imperfectly 
drain this region. The whole section is the recent bed of 
the lake, the sand ridges being the old dunes thrown up by 
wind and waves as the Lake successively contracted its 

The ^ eastern half of the Lake section is older, higher, 
dryer and better wooded than the western. The Tippeca- 
noe, St. Joseph and Eel rivers, which drain it, have deeper 
channels and more current than the streams in the west, 
but less than those in the south. Taken altogether the 
whole region is less favored in soil, climate and products, 
than the southern portions of the State, and those who 
have seen it only are prejudiced against Indiana as the 
peculiar home of frogs and aquatic fowl. The swamps 
however are rich in iron ore, and very much of the surface 
with proper drainage will be very productive in future. 
The wooded section in the eastern part is already very val- 
uable. The region is traversed by three eastern and west- 
ern lines of railway, and though accessible from Indianap- 
olis by two or three routes but little effort has yet been 
made by our business men to obtain its trade. The exten- 
sion north into Michigan of our railway lines will bring us 
into closer relations with it, and enable us to compete with 
other cities for its trade. Michigan City, Laporte, South 
Bend, Plymouth, Goshen, and other prosperous towns are 
the local centres for trade in this section, all these are di- 
rectly or indirectly connected with Indianapolis by railway. 

The Ohio river section embraces the greater part of sev- 
enteen counties, including the Whitewater valley, and a 
belt usually less than twenty miles wide, along the Ohio 



river. The fertility of the valley is well known, and though 
the upland is far less rich, the average of the whole section 
is a good one. It is well drained by the many short rapid 
streams in the hill gorges, and has a fine climate. The 
products include all the cereal crops, fine fruits, and live 
stock, while the western portion contains vast stores of 
coal, now largely mined and used along the river. This 
section is cut, at four or five points, by railway lines from 
Indianapolis, but its relations are more intimate with the 
river cities, and through them we may control its resources 
in building stone, ores and coals. The timber, once very 
heavy, has been mostly cut ofl' in this region. It is the 
oldest portion of the State and contains the following thriv- 
ing cities: Lawrenceburgh, Madison, New Albany, Jefier- 
sonville and Evansville, on the Ohio river, and Eichmond, 
Centerville, Connersville and Erookville, on Whitewater 

The central section of the State is by far the largest, 
most productive and important of all, comprising wholly 
or partially, fifty-nine counties, with the best soil, climate, 
water power, timber, mineral wealth and well drained even 
surface. A similar country extends east and west into Ohio 
and Illinois. As this section comprehends nearly all the 
State, a detailed examination of its climate, topography, 
soil and products, will measurably exhaust the subject un- 
der consideration. 


The climate of the State is undergoing a gradual change. 
The early pioneers fifty years ago entered a dense forest of 
large trees, extending from the east State line to beyond the 
Wabash, and from the Ohio nearly to the lake. Through 
this forest and its dense undergrowth numerous streams 
ran bank full and subject to frequent freshets. The wet 



earth covered with decaying vegetation sent forth miasmatic 
vapors and the air and sunlight seldom reached the surface. 
The ground, wet and cold in summer, was warm in winter 
and snow seldom laid long. The summers were hot, with 
frequent and severe thunder storms. The winters were 
wet, mild and changeable. The prevalent winds were from 
the south west and west. Since that date fully one-half the 
great forest has been swept away. The undergrowth has 
gone; the sunlight and wind have dried the swamps; the 
streams are smaller and often dry; the summers are hot, 
dry and with fewer storms; the winters colder, with more 
snow, which lies longer, and the prevalent northwesterly 
winds bring the air of the lakes upon us in a few hours. 
The temperature is therefore subject to greater vicissitudes 
than formerly, for occupying a medium line as we do, the 
air of the south or the north is soon brought to us by a 
change of wind. The clearing of the country has doubt- 
less produced this climatic change, and at the same time 
has improved the general health, for no city in the world 
of equal population with Indianapolis can show a smaller 
death rate. The staple crops have probably been some- 
what aflected also by the change. Slow growth southern 
corn is not so likely to mature; wheat, oats and potatoes are 
better; fruits are not so certain, and the cultivation of 
peaches in the northern portions has been almost abandoned. 
Forty or fifty years ago cotton was regularly and success- 
fully cultivated near Yincennes and frequently near Terre 
Haute. There can be little doubt that the mean temper- 
ature of the whole State has been slightly lowered in the 
time mentioned. 


Central Indiana is a wide and very shallow basin, out- 
lined by the water-shed of the Wabash and its tributaries, 



extending almost from the crest of the Ohio and Whitewa- 
ter river blufis to a line parallel to and about twenty miles 
north of the Wabash river. Its averao:e elevation above 
the sea may be closely approximated at six hundred feet, 
and its elevation above the interior river levels at from 
thirty to three hundred feet. The surface is nearly level or 
gently rolling table land, cut by the valleys of the streams, 
which are generally shallow or narrow in the north east, and 
deepening and widening to the south west as they near the 
Wabash and Ohio rivers. These valleys are all valleys of 
erosion, probably following the line of fracture in the strata, 
the general trend of the system being to the south west, 
(with cross lines of fracture to north west) and the drain- 
age of the whole section is in that direction. The eroded 
valleys of the lower Wabash and White rivers are often 
several miles wide, flanked by picturesque blufis two to 
three hundred feet high and the table land is broken by 
many deep ravines. 

The streams were once much used for navigation by flat 
and keel boats, and even large sized steamboats often as- 
cended them, but as the clearing of the country diminished 
their volume they became less useful for navigation and 
were damned and an immense water power thus secured 
for manufacturing purposes. 


This region has good soils in almost every part, varying 
to some degree according to position. The upland soils are 
usually somewhat clayey and retentive, but rich and dura- 
ble, while the loamy valley soils, from their depth and the 
intimate mixture of materials, are inexhaustible and of as- 
tonishing fertility, yielding with certainty abundant crops 
of all the grains and fruits of the Temperate Zone. The 
soils even over the coal measures are of such fertility that 



the surface yield is almost as important as the mineral pro- 
duct, and the earth is mined above and below with almost 
equal ease and profit. This fertility of the soil is a peculiar 
merit of our coal field, and is due to the drift formation, 
which covers the whole State to a great depth, and by its 
intimate mixture of material secures a good soil in almost 
every part. Indeed the productiveness of the Wabash and 
"White river valleys is proverbial, and in former years, when 
less well and widely cultivated than now, and when but a 
small part of their surplus products reached New Orleans 
by flat boats, "the Wabash glut" was a noted event, 
anxiously looked for and its effects as closely calculated as 
the leading features of the cotton market. 

As a natural consequence of the fertility of the soil the 
agricultural products are unusually valuable, and the State 
though small ranks high among the corn, wheat and pork 
producing States of the country. 

The State is noted not only for its grain product but also 
for the superiority of its live stock, especially the mules 
and horses; these, without any special efforts to improve 
the breeds, are of such good quality from peculiarities of 
soil and climate, that they are eagerly sought for elsewhere, 
and Indianapolis might be and ought to be the leading 
stock market for the country. Cattle thrive well every- 
where, and the southern portion of the State is peculiarly 
well fitted for the breeding and rearing of sheep, and the 
production of fine wool. This last named interest will ul- 
timately be very important and a steady market will be 
afforded for all the product in our factories. Immense 
numbers of hogs are fed on the corn crops of the Wabash 
and White river valleys and sent to market here and at 
other points. The entire grain, fruit and stock production 
of the State is within our grasp, and it will be our own 



fault if the resources thus presented are not made to swell 
the grand total of the trade of Indianapolis. 


Our soils can support the densest of manufacturing pop- 
ulations, even in the coal field itself, and still yield a sur- 
plus for export. So that cheap food for manufacturing op- 
eratives may always be relied on. 

The great reason for this reliability on cheap food is 
found in the durability of most of the Indiana soils, difi*er- 
ing greatly in this respect from most of the prairie soils 
which are often so light and loose that the elements re- 
quired in vegetable growth are exhausted in a few years by 
culture, or, after continued stirring of the surface, are 
leached by water to a depth beyond the reach of the culti- 
vator, and indeed their exhaustion is hastened by subsoiling. 
There are many sections in Illinois and some in Indiana, 
which must again become sandy deserts under the present 
system of culture, and very large additional acres now cul- 
tivable will ultimately only be valuable for grazing, i^ot- 
withstanding the disparity in size between Illinois and Indi- 
ana, and the immense present production of the first named 
State, it is highly probable that in the distant future Indi- 
ana will exceed her neighbor in the aggregate amount of 
her agricultural products. 


Very prominent among these resources are the varieties 
of hard woods suitable for fuel, for building and for manu- 
tures. The vast forests encountered by the first settlers 
have been already mentioned, and their extent and charac- 
ter briefly stated, and though fifty years have been devoted 
to the destruction of the stock accumulated by nature 
through the centuries, enough yet remains to meet all rea- 



sonable demands. If the old forest stood as it did fifty 
years ago, it would supply for centuries all the hard wood 
needed iu manufacturing from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
with the European demand added, and so far as present 
value is concerned, it is probable (if towns and cities are 
left out of the estimate) that the surface so wooded would 
be more valuable than in its present condition. The origi- 
nal forest covered almost the whole State, reaching nearly 
to the lake and ending a few miles west of the Wabash in 
the grand prairie, from which point to the mountains the 
treeless plains rolled on like an ocean ; presenting for all 
coming time a sure and steady market for all surplus tim- 
ber. Among the unnumbered millions of trees in this forest, 
were found all varieties of hard- woods, of great size and the 
best quality. Though a few leading kinds of timber gene- 
rally prevail over considerable areas, it is wonderful how 
many varieties are often found on two or three contiguous 
acres, and as to size and density of growth, it is hazardous 
to state the number of feet of timber, or the number of 
cords of wood often cut from a single acre. 


The leading varieties of the larger trees found in our for- 
ests are as follows : 

. The white, black, burr, red, chesnut, Spanish, chincapin, 
and other oaks. These are found in great abundance, of 
the largest size, and in almost all sections. The importance 
of this wood as fuel, for building purposes, and in the vari- 
ous manufactures, will occur to every one. Vast amounts 
of oak timber are now worked into staves and exported 
east and to Europe. 

"White and yellow poplars of the largest size and the 
finest quality were formerly found in almost every part of 
the State, and though now much culled, yet the supply is 



still very large. The wood is so great a favorite with build- 
ers and manufacturers that it has been used for almost every 
purpose, and the amount of lumber thus consumed in the 
last forty years is almost incalculable. Scarcely a structure 
exists in the central parts of the State in which poplar has 
not largely entered, if indeed it is not the sole material 
used. The wood is also very much in demand for furniture 
and is useful in almost all lines of wooden manufactures. 

Black and white walnut trees of very great size and the 
most perfect quality are found along the valleys of the 
streams and the lumber from them is in steady demand 
for furniture and house finishing, bringing a good price and 
meeting ready sale. The timber and lumber is now largely 
shipped to the east and to Europe, and the trade is assum- 
ing gigantic proportions. 

The white, black, red and sugar maples, are found in great 
numbers, of large size, and fine grain. These woods are be- 
ing largely used for finishes and ornamental work, pianos, &c. 

The shellbark, mockenut, pignut, bitternut and water 
hickories are found in great numbers, and used in carriage 
work, tools, cooperage, and many other uses. 

The black, white, gray and blue ash, is very common, of 
large size and fine and tough grain. They are used in 
building, in furniture, in carriage work, tools, cooperage, 
and many other uses. 

The chesnut, found in the south part of the State is 
used in furniture, and for finish lumber, having a color and 
grain very similar to some kinds of ash. 

The red and white beeches are found very generally over . 
the State, constituting a large part of the forests, and are 
very durable, and beautiful woods. They are largely used 
for fuel, but are also coming into demand for tools, build- 
ing timber, and for musical instruments. 
C. I.— 3 



The wild cherry is used in furniture, the sycamore for 
furniture, fences and building timber. The slippery, the 
red, the white and the hickory elm are largely used in build- 
ing, wagon work, cooperage, and for fuel. The black and 
the honey locust, and the mulberry are used for finishes and 
for fuel. The hackberry, the sassafras, the cofieenut, and 
the black, the white and sweet gum trees are used in build- 
ing and for fuel. The cypress is used for finish lumber, 
wooden-ware and for shingles. 

Of the smaller hard wood trees we have an abundance 
of hornbeam, dogwood, black and red haw, service-berry, 
plum, crab and other varieties, used in tools, and for toy 

Of the softer kinds of timber there is an abundance of 
catalpa, cottonwood, silver maple, linden and buckeye. 
These are largely used in building timber, boxing, wooden - 
ware, bowls and baskets, carriage work, &c. Ked and white 
cedar, and white and pitch pines are found to a limited ex- 
tent in some places, while the pawpaw, persimmon, and 
other fruit bearing trees are common. In short, no region 
in the country contains so many kinds and so great a sup- 
ply of timber as central Indiana, and though in places no 
surplus is left for export, an ample supply yet exists along 
six or seven of the more recently opened roads leading to 
Indianapolis, where the product can be so readily concen- 
trated and worked up that it will be surprising if many of 
the wooden-ware manufacturers do not soon feel compelled 
to locate here for business. 

In addition to hard woods Indianapolis is fast becoming 
a leading market for the pine lumber from the north. By 
means of the road now being extended north from Peru 
and Fort Wayne into the lumber districts of Michigan, the 
pine from that region will be brought here in a few hours, 
.B.t all seasons, without change or handling, direct from the 



mills to our dealers who can compete successfully with Chi- 
cago or Toledo for the great lumber trade of the west and 
south. The railway managers have already given assur- 
ances that they will deliver the pine here as cheaply as it is 
placed in the Chicago yards. Even now an immense amount 
of pine is worked and sold at this point and prices rule but 
little above those in lake ports — with the additional advan- 
tages soon to be had, the traffic here in hard and soft lum- 
ber and timber, and in cooperage may be made truly im- 
mense, provided the requisite capital and energy are de- 
voted to it. 


The mineral wealth of the State, however, is of far greater 
importance than the grain, live stock or timber product. 
To properly consider these resources we should first exam- 
ine the general geological features of the State, passing 
consecutively from the oldest formations in the south east 
corner, northward and westward over the outcrops of the 
more recent strata to the west boundary line of the State. 
We must first say, however, that these formations are so 
deeply covered with drift deposits — especially in the central 
sections, where they are often fifty, eighty, or one hundred 
feet deep — that it is difficult even over large surfaces to in- 
dicate the lines of the underlying strata. This is especially 
the case in the north where the deposit is very deep, and is 
then covered with still more recent locustrine sands. The 
accompanying map will show the approximate outlines of 
the formations so far as they can be traced through the 
drift, and though not as complete as is desirable, can be 
consulted in the following 


Beginning then in the south east corner of the State, we 



find the lower silurian, bighly fosiliferous, their bedded blue 
limestones, clays and shales, covering the greater part of 
ten counties, the western line of outcrop leaving the Ohio 
river just below Madison and running north and north east 
to the Ohio line in Eandolph county. It includes nearly 
all the Whitewater river valley. This formation supplies 
some good and durable though thin strata of building 
stone, well fitted for pavements and rough walls. 

Passing north and north west of this formation we enter 
the upper silurian strata mainly composed of heavy bedded 
gray limestones, with some shales and sandstones, their 
western boundaries leaving the river at or near Jefierson- 
ville, passing almost north through Columbus, Indianapolis^ 
and Delphi, and then most probably curving north and 
north east under the heavy drift to or nearly to the Michi- 
gan State line. This formation is the most widely extended 
of all in the State, and contains much fine building stone, 
many quarries and many lime kilns are found in it, and 
great amounts of stone and lime have been sent to this 
point and elsewhere for market. 

Next west of the upper silurian formation lies a narrow 
belt of black aluminous shale or slate, of considerble thick- 
ness, outcropping at the falls of the Ohio, and passing north 
near Columbus, Franklin, Indianapolis, east of Lebanon 
and near Delphi and Monticello, and on to the north where 
it disappears under the drift. It is very probable that the 
shale here becomes almost horizontal, and is the surface 
rock immediately under the drift over a wide district in the 
north west part of the State. The general trend of the 
formations in this and neighboring States, seems to indicate 
this, and the swampy character of the region in question 
tends to prove it, for the bituminous shale holds water like 
a dish and the sands above .it would naturally be full of 
lakes and swamps. The outlines on the map of the forma- 



tion of this section are merely conjectural, and nothing can 
be certainly known of them until borings are made. The 
slate itself has little or no economic value. 

West of and resting on the black slate is a belt from ten 
to thirty miles wide of soft white and gray sub-carboniferous 
sandstones and shales, the west boundary leaving the Ohio 
river about the middle of Harrison county, and passing 
north to Salem, and north west near Bloomington, Green- 
castle, and Williamsport to the Illinois line near Beaver 
lake. West of and adjoining these sandstones is a belt from 
two to five miles wide of coarse gravel, heavy bedded, gray 
sub-carboniferous limestones, probably reaching an aggre- 
gate thickness of one thousand to fifteen hundred feet near 
the river, and thinning out toward the north until only a 
few feet thick at the Wabash. The sandstones above men- 
tioned are also very heavy in the south and diminish in 
thickness toward the north, and the same fact exists in re- 
gard to all the other formations of the State. These sand- 
stones and limestones form the sub-carboniferous group 
outcropping along the eastern edge of the coal field, and 
aftbrding at very many points quarries of the finest build- 
ing stone, easily worked, of good color and great durability. 
A number of locations of iron ore also exist in their forma- 
tion, and in the sandstone belt are found the most broken 
and hilly sections of the State. 


^ext west and occupying all the rest of the State is the 
coal field with its superincumbent strata. It underlies the 
counties of Posey, Yanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry, 
Dubois, Pike, Knox, Davies, Martin, Green, Sullivan, Vigo, 
Clay, Parke and Ycrmillion, with perhaps half of Wan-en, 
Fountain, Orange and Crawford, and parts of Putnam, 
Owen and Lawrence. Its area may be approximately fixed 



at eight tliousaud square miles, or more than one-fifth of 
the State. The main seams out-crop in nearly parallel lines, 
forming a belt from four to fifteen miles wide along the 
eastern margin of the field, and running in a north westerly 
direction from the Ohio river above Cannelton to the Illi- 
nois line northwest of Williamsport. The beds dip slightly 
to the west or southwest; are very uniform in position, 
thickness and quality; lie nearly horizontal and near the 
surface; are but little distributed by faults; are generally 
bedded on fine clays and roofed by shale or slates, and can 
be easily and cheaply mined by drifts along the outcrops, or 
by shallow shafts at points within the field. The number 
of seams Has not been fully determined, but may probably 
be fixed at fifteen with an aggregate thickness of thirty 
feet. Each of these are workable at some point, and most 
of them at many points, but there are four or five beds 
whose persistent qualities and thickness justify working 
almost everywhere, and which may be included in any gen- 
eral examination of the section. Any attempt to estimate 
the amount of coal in the State is hazardous, but allowing 
only eight feet of workable coal, and taking the usual av- 
erage of one million tons per mile to the foot in thickness, 
we get the total of about sixty-five thousands of millions 
of tons, worth at the low figure of |1.50 per ton, nearly 
one hundred thousand millions of dollars. The mind can- 
not appreciate this sum, but great as it is it may be within 
the mark, for in many places there is a single coal seam 
thicker than the total amount here allowed. At all events 
the estimate above made will show that our statements of 
the mineral wealth of Indiana is not unfounded. 

The coal measures (which include the coal beds and the 
intercalated sandstone, shales, &c.,) generally rest on the 
mill stone grit — a coarse grained sandstone resting on the 
sub-carboniferous limestone — and whose outcrop always 



marks the close proximity of coal. It is generally regarded 
as lying at the base of the coal measures, but in the south- 
western part of the State it bears two thick seams of good 
workable coal, very similar in character to block coal, and 
should therefore be considered as only the lowest member 
of the coal measures themselves. Above this stratum lies 
a bed of shales and above it a thick bed of fire clay, on 
which rests the main "block coal" seam. This seam, which 
maintains its position, quality and thickness over the whole 
field, is composed of a lower and upper member separated 
by a thin parting of fire clay, (sometimes increasing to ten 
or twenty feet of sandstone or shale) and the united thick- 
ness of the two members ranges from nearly four to five 
and one-half feet. It usually forms the most eastern out- 
crop of the field, and has a roof composed of five to seven 
feet of highly bituminous black shales. This lower block 
coal seam produces the best fuel to be found in this country, 
and its peculiar structure and general merits will be more 
fully considered in a subsequent pgirt of this article. 

From fifty to sixty feet above the lower seam we encoun- 
ter the second leading bed, ranging from three to four feet 
thick and producing a more bituminous harder and heavier 
coal, generally used for grates and steam purposes. It is 
not so reliable in quality or thickness over wide areas as 
the lower coals. 

Forty to fifty feet above the second, covers the third 
leading coal, which though only eighteen to twenty-four 
inches thick, deserves mention from its remarkable persist- 
ence in thickness, position and quality, over the whole field, 
and from the fact that it is a block coal almost equal to the 
lower seams for all purposes. It has a roof of finely lami- 
nated shales four to six feet thick, containing a thin seam 
of pure canal coal, and the shales (as well as those roofing 
the lower block coal) are so highly bituminous as to burn 



freely, and by distillation yield a barrel of oil to the ton of 
shale. The time may soon come when they can be exten- 
sively used for this purpose and have a great economic value. 

The fourth main coal lies from fifteen to thirty feet above 
the last named seam and ranges from five to eight and even 
ten feet or more in thickness. It consists of three members, 
usually separated by thin clay partings, sometimes increas- 
ing to fifteen or twenty feet of sandstone or shale, and pro- 
ducing the impression of two or more beds. It may be 
considered a composite bed. The upper member of the 
bed is a hard steam and grate coal of the best quality. The 
middle member is a soft fat coking coal fit for making gas 
and very effective in the furnace. The two upper members 
of this coal are improved for most purposes by mixing. 
The lower member is frequently pyritous, is generally less 
reliable than the others, but it sometimes becomes very 
thick and produces the very best quality of coal. This 
great composite seam is usually associated with a massive 
sandstone (which often alftbrds good building material) and 
will furnish nearly as much coal as all the other seams com- 
bined, and indeed nearly as much as our estimate for the 
whole field. It may certainly be relied on to furnish cheap 
fuel for all ordinary purposes for many years to come, but 
when, compared with the block coal seams it is less reliable 
in quality and thickness over the whole field, and its coal is 
not so valuable. Still above it in the south west part of the 
State lie several other thick beds of soft fat coals, now large- 
ly used in the vicinity, and for steamboat purposes, but 
their extent and value are not yet fully known. In addi- 
tion to these there are other beds in various parts of the 
field, of less general importance but often affording thick 
local beds of fine coal, easily worked, and of immense value 
in their aggregate product. It is certainly evident from 
this hurried examination that our coal field will supply more 



coal, and is of greater value than our estimate heretofore 

We may also observe here, that in addition to mere quan- 
tity and quality, our coals have a marked advantage over 
those in any other field in that they can be so easily mined 
by drifts or shallow shafts, without using expensive pump- 
ing or hoisting machinery. They have so few faults, lie so 
nearly horizontal and so near the surface, have such solid 
floors and roofs, are so uniform in thickness, and so little 
affected by fire damp or water that scarcely any of the dis- 
advantages encountered elsewhere are met with and the 
coals can be put on the cars at much less cost. In addition 
to this we can adduce the further peculiar merit that the 
soils over the seams will furnish cheap food for the densest 
mining population. Great mining companies will at once 
admit the importance of this fact. 


The "coal measures," in addition to the coal veins, also 
include many strata of argillaceous and bituminous shales 
or slates, fire clays, gray, white and red sandstones, some 
limestone, and bands and beds of iron ore; the last some- 
times covering extensive tracts, as in Parke and Greene 
counties, where the supply is of great value, — west of the 
outcrop of the leading coal beds and extending to the State 
line lie the thin super-carboniferous strata, deeply covered 
in most places by the drift. The sandstones and limestones 
in the coal measures afford an excellent building material 
in most places and the fine clays are very valuable. 

Having thus indicated the general geological features of 
the State, we may consider the mineral products somewhat 
more in detail — the sands, clays, stone, lime, ores and coals, 
yielded by these formations, — and which can be made use- 
ful in the industrial arts. 



Coarse and line sands, and gravel, and boulders of all 
sizes are found in any quantity near the surface in all parts 
of central Indiana, readily available for building purposes, 
constructing roads and streets, making artificial stone, ce- 
ment pipe and similar purposes where materials of this kind 
are used. The drift clays also are exhaustless, and from 
them are made firm durable red brick and tiles, hard or 
soft as they are desired, and obtainable in any number at 
low figures. The fire clays of the coal field furnish mate- 
rial for making very refractory fire bricks, the crucibles used 
in glass factories and elsewhere, terra cotta work of every 
description, stoneware and cheap queensware. A very 
large trade has already grown up in these lines of manufac- 
ture, but the material will meet any demand that labor and 
capital and the market, can make upon it. Lime of fine 
quality and pure white color is burned at many points and 
brought in large quantity to Indianapolis where it meets 
ready sale. Plaster and cement are largely imported from 
the river region and extensively used. 


An impression has generally prevailed, even among our 
own people, that the State is deficient in building stone, and 
only lately is the truth becoming known in regard to this 
subject. This impression was due to the fact that the drift 
so deeply and generally covered the adjacent strata that 
their character and qualities were unknown. It is certain, 
however, that at very many points in the south eastern por- 
tion of the State, and along the "Wabash, the Ohio and 
White rivers, and along the eastern margin of the coal and 
in the field itself, are extensive beds of the very best sand- 
stones or limestones, which may be readily and cheaply 
quarried for local use or export. The hard thin blue lower » 
Silurian limestones in the south eastern counties are espec- 



ially valuable for pavements, being extremely durable and 
coming from the quarry in great sheets only three or four 
inches thick. They are also much used for cellar walls and 
foundations, and are brought here in great amount from 
points along the Indianapolis & Cincinnati railroad. Some 
of these strata are highly fossiliferous and take a fine polish, 
producing specimens of a beautiful shell marble. Soft yel- 
lowish white limestones, easily worked and much used for 
cellars, walls, and general purposes are brought here from 
points in the upper silurian region, many quarries of it exist- 
ing at various localities on the Madison & Indianapolis rail- 
road, and along the Wabash river. A large amount of lime 
is also made from these beds. 

The best building stone, and the greatest amount and 
variety in quality comes from the belt of sub-carboniferous 
limestones and sandstones east of the coal field, and from 
the limestones and sandstones in the field itself The J^ew 
Albany & Salem road runs for many miles along the mid- 
dle of the limestone belt, and also crosses the sandstone 
outcrop, and the Ohio & Mississippi, the Indianapolis & Vin- 
cennes, the Terre Haute & Indianapolis, the Indianapo- 
lis & St. Louis, and the Indianapolis, Bloomington & West- 
ern railways all cross sections of both formations and cut 
the strata in the coal field. Along the lines of these roads 
exist unlimited supplies of the best limestone and sand- 
stone for building purposes in the west. The limestones 
are gray, yellowish or pure white, coarse or fine grained, 
durable, strong, easily worked, and lie in thick strata afibrd- 
ing large blocks. The sandstones are red, buft', yellowish, 
gray or white, soft when first quarried, but hardeniog with 
exposure, very durable, work to a sharp edge, lie in heavy 
strata, and can be had in blocks of any size. Both forma- 
tions are fjiUy developed near the river, the strata measuring 
probably two thousand feet, but thin out rapidly toward the 



"Wabash. No better building material need be asked than 
can be had here, and both the freestone and limestone must 
come into general use for large and expensive structures, 
where beauty, durability, and economy are alike consulted. 
Both these formations, and the very valuable strata inside 
the coal field, are cut by the five or six roads leading from 
Indianapolis, thus laying almost every inch under contribu- 
tion, and these materials should be as cheap at this point 
as if the strata adjoined the city. The roads leading through 
them will soon do a heavy transportation business in them 
and already a strong demand exists here both for the lime- 
stone and freestone. The quarries at Bedford, Blooming- 
ton, EUetsville, Mt. Tabor and elsewhere, are rapidly in- 
creasing their product to meet this demand. A fine and 
very white limestone of good quality is quarried at several 
points on the Yincennes & Indianapolis railroad, and is rap- 
idly growing in favor here as a building stone. It is easily 
worked, firm, durable, elastic, and retains its pure white 
color under long exposure. So far from the State being 
deficient in good building stone, the observer, after patient 
examination, is surprised by the variety, the extent, and the 
excellent quality of the material possessed by Indiana, and 
must conclude that no city in this country is better situated 
for easily and cheaply obtaining it than Indianapolis. 


Besides building stone the State possesses many strata 
rich in other materials useful in the industrial arts. Prom- 
inent among these are the sandrock strata found near 'New 
Albany, near Yernon, near Pendleton and near Hunting- 
ton, along the western edge and middle of the upper silu- 
ria formation. At ISTew Albany and at Pendleton the rock 
is peculiarly fitted for making glass, and is now quarried 
for that purpose, the product being consumed in the glass 




factories at Indianapolis and New Albany. In Jennings 
county the stone is a good buhr-stone well fitted for milling 
purposes and largely used in that way. There are also 
many localities in the soft sub-carboniferous sandstones and 
in the coal field where the rock is suitable for making glass, 
and it is quarried now at points along the Vincennes road 
and used in the glass works at Indianapolis. These strata 
also furnish a good material for grindstones, and very excel- 
let whetstones, and at a few points is found a very fine lith- 
ographic stone. 

The fossihferous thin bedded blue limestones of the lower 
Silurian period have been heretofore mentioned. A careful 
selection among these will give a beautiful shell marble, 
taking a fine polish and very durable for ornamental, or 
inside work in public buildings or dwellings. These thin 
strata will inevitably become valuable for such purposes and 
attract the attention they have always merited. This form- 
ation also furnishes many marl beds, from which fertilizers 
can be produced for local use or export. The upper silu- 
ria formation furnishes along the river, and near Louisville 
the strata from which is made the water lime. The bitu- 
minous shales of the coal section furnish a som'ce for the 
future distillation of oil. The fire clays will supply fire 
brick, terra cotta, stoneware and queens ware, while there 
are also strata in the same quarter very similar to that from 
which fine queensware is made. There are also said to be 
local deposits of material fit for making fine porcelain ware. 
The economic value of these several beds is immense and 
the future product will sum up largely in the aggregate 
wealth of the State. 


The next mineral products attracting attention are the 
iron ores. The location and extent of these deposits have 



not been so well ascertained, or the ores so well developed as 
they should have been, but enough is known to warrant 
the assertion that the supply is great and its value enormous. 
The ores are generally the earthy carbonates, known as 
"bog," "band" and "kidney" ores, but the silicious ores are 
also met with to a considerable extent. The Indiana ores 
usually range from twenty-five to forty-five per cent, in 
metal, and are often economically reduced only after a pre- 
liminary roasting, or after being mixed with richer ores 
from the north and west for which they are specially fitted, 
the proportion of lime they contain assisting materially in 
the fluxing. They are hardly rich enough to be profitably 
worked alone and generally make a cold short iron, but 
when used in the furnace with the rich specular Missouri 
and Lake Superior ores, they make a quality of iron bear- 
ing a x^rice two dollars per ton higher than any other in the 
Indianapolis and Pittsburg- markets. 

Though bog ores are not usually very rich they are high- 
ly valued because of their freedom from sulphur and the 
fact that they are so easily reduced, and make a good qual- 
ity of iron, especially when mixed with richer ores. Though 
found to some extent in all sections of the State, the most 
important and extensive beds of this ore are located in St. 
Joseph, Elkhart, Marshall, IToble, White and Cass counties, 
in most of which they are largely mixed and reduced in 
furnaces in the vicinity making a very good iron. 

The nodular earthy ores are largely developed in the 
clays above the black aluminous slate in Floyd and Clark 
counties, and are also found northward along the trend of 
the same formation, but the ore is so diffused and generally 
poor that so long as richer ores are readily obtainable it will 
hardly pay to work them. The same remark may be made 
of the ores found in Carroll, Perry, Crawford and some oth- 
er counties. The band and kidney or limonite ores are 



largely developed in a shale bed between the mill-stone grit 
and sub-carboniferous limestone, lying in a stratum from 
one to three or more feet thick under the coal measures, 
and outcropping along the eastern margin in Warren, 
Parke, Fountain, Putnam, Clay, Owen, Monroe, Greene, 
Crawford and Perry counties. These ores, with occasional 
silicious ores, are also found in the shales accompanying 
the upper and lower block coals, being largely developed, 
especially in Vermillion, Parke and Greene counties, where 
the deposits cover large acres and are very thick and relia- 
ble. They will generally range from thirty to forty-five 
per cent, in metal and must become immensely valuable in 
future associated as they are with the block coals and con- 
taining a notable proportion of lime which aids their re- 
duction. Some of the ores, especially in Greene count}^, 
are well fitted for the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer 
process, and they will, when mixed with the Missouri and 
Superior ores, always make the very best quality of iron. 
This fact — long disputed — has recently been thoroughly 
settled by practical experince, and the attention of iron 
makers has been drawn to this field, partly because of the 
quality of the ores and partly from the quality of the fuel 
used in its reduction. Five years ago there was scarcely a 
furnace in all this section and the merits of our coals and 
ores were comparatively unknown, but recently several well 
constructed hot blast furnaces have been built in Clay coun- 
ty, which use the raw block coal in smelting the Missouri 
and Superior ores, making about one hundred tons of iron, 
averaging in price forty dollars per ton, with the daily con- 
sumption of three hundred tons of coal, one hundred and 
fifty. tons of ore, and fifty tons of limestone. The merits 
of the block coal and ore having been settled by practical 
experience (for the iron sells at higher rates than any other 



in market) additional furnaces will soon be built here and 
elsewhere, vastly increasing the iron product and giving 
Indiana the leading rank among the manufacturing States 
of the Union. 

The tables which follow have been carefully prepared 
from the returns made by county officers to the Auditor of 
State, and though not embracing all the counties — some 
having failed to make returns — show the immense agri- 
cultural products of our State last year. 




Bush, of Corn. 

Bush, of Wheat 

Bush, of Oats. 

Pounds of 

Bush, of 

A /I O TY\ Q 


X U<J, 4 VX 

Pil 701 

ox, 4 V/X 

Al Al 1 



99^ 8Q9 

1 9 A 0A8 

J. 01 
•i, UXU 

1 f;k "jaa 

X 00, 4 bb 

1 Al 9 9ftPi 

341 265 

105 774 

17 136 

36 275 

on ■f rin 

5 536 

8 871 

0,0 1 X 


9 of;a 

X i V O J 

153 410 

12 850 

4 401 

1 AOO 
X 0, ouu 

xoo, uco 

58 198 

47 749 

44 230 

990 -d-QR 

56 410 

22 225 

170 715 

16 700 

1 i70j<J£/l 

282 771 

96 357 

p> 877 

OjO 4 4 

PIQ 8^10 


•787 89^ 

995 81 8 

50 250 

4 150 

85 120 


1 OQ 8PL7 

X Ui/j OO 1 

1 Q 1 00 
xo, xuu 

1 7 AQ9 

Ob, OOb 

9 1 n9 r^HP; 

901 7AA 

A 7 ^10 
u 4,oxy 

A 000 

AA 07Fi 

OO, U 4 J 

T^Qtri PQQ 

899 QAfi 

1 ^0 7Q7 

1 Q '^7A 

X i7, O 4 b 

f\(K QOS 

98 700 

iiOj 4 bU 

"Fiopn f iiT 

1 1 1 A Q9A 

^^zl AQA 

88 ^f^^ 


Q 9F^0 

Qf; f^aa 

Tlol fl TtTCl TP 

918 f^Q7 

n X o, OO 1 



A 9f;o 

b, iiOb 

A9 800 

/y (,ODii 

8^ AAO 

o J,o4o 

zl.90 J.79 

1 f;aa 



Q81 A^"^ 
y o Xj'ioo 

ao AAO 

19 191 
X ^, X ^ X 



9A8 KKR 
ij'iO, oOO 

Q9 889 


1 ^9 809 


98 f;aa 


iOl, 1 OU 


Ob, bob 

1 8 7Qn 
io, 4 oU 

QA "^00 

yo <ji < u 

1 A^ Cion 

OA f7QA 

/4, 4 yu 

af;7 oko 

40 4 ,bOU 

9F; 9'7K 
/O, Z 4 

1 Q9fi 1 'rn 
I,o/o, i / U 

iioo, i bu 

7a 7/1 A 

4 U, 44U 

11/1 aq7 
i i4,4o 4 

A/1 ^1 

'7QQ QFiP; 

1 AQ 1 7a 
xboj 1 < U 

A9 A7FL 
bii,U 4 

AQ zlQO 

9A 800 

1 1 K on K 
l,iO /,c>UD 

14U, <Ub 

AC O /( 


1 '7/1 
lo, 4 / 4 

A Q 9K0 






T-Tatttq V/l 

4 0'3b, <oy 

1 99 QAO 


o 4) y b 

91 8f^0 

40 A8Fi 


1 A7 OOP, 
lb 4,ZZ0 

fil KAA 


00 AKK 




To /^tor^n 

1 1 *7'7 Ql K 
Ij i 4 < ,OiO 

1 A8 780 
xbo, 4 oU 

1 OA 7AA 

X Ub, 4 bU 

99 AAA 

9 7 900 

QO A7f^ 
yu,b 4 




A.9 9A0 

^t^, ZbU 

^^79 800 

1 FiO 89Fi 

AO 7f^O 
4.S, 4 Ob 

8 ^^00 

9 7 AAO 

1 Q 1 K 9 n 

9A9 Q8n 



Q9 1 1 
0.i, lib 

91 f;i 

ii 1, ib 

87*7 1 QO 

1 1 AO 

1 7 '^70 

22 330 


O I 1 J i i7U 

811 1 p;n 
Oil, i yu 

XOO, xou 
1 1 Q AOO 

X X Oj'iUU 

X 4 ,0 4 U 

Q8 A1 Pi 

8 p;i 

15 130 

J., luOjXjyu 

900 119 

^bU, X X ;4 

AO ^70 

42 125 

40 710 

1 KAP, 7nr» 


1 1 A A90 
1 X U,bZb 

A ^QO 
b, OoU 

1 F14 F19A 
1 Orr, ^ U 

AToT'+in * 



9 K 9QO 
/O, ^oU 

1 Flo 1 00 

X OU, X vU 

12 790 



9 7 K A r; A 

oy, 4 xu 

TA 7f;o 

1 0, 4 OU 

8F> 070 
J,b 4 b 


1 AQ f;7a 
xuy,o 4 u 



1 Q 780 
10, 4 Ob 

1 7 ^^00 

X 4 , ObU 

i,0o4, <UU 

Of; A OA A 


1 1 Q 1 KA 

1 7 1 QFi 

X 4 , lyo 

AA 9A0 

1 AAA Af^A 

1 7Q AAA 
X (y,UUU 

7A A90 
4 b,bZb 

1 A AOO 

"^A AQO 


400, yyu 

1 1 A K'ln 
liUjO 4 U 

*7 A QKA 

4 4,oOU 



1 1 a70 
1 l,b 4 b 

AO A /( K A 




•70 AQA 

4 o,UoU 


1 QK/l A'7A 

9AQ '7Qfi 
/bo, 4oO 

OU,o 40 

1 A 880 

Ob, OOU 

£! 1 1 OA 


1 AQ OQ K 

xy,0 4 

1 1 '7 OK 

i i 4 ,4Z0 

1 A AOO 

1 ^KA Q A f\ 

I, <o4,o4U 

T A(\ ^ OA 


100 AQ(\ 

i Jo,4ob 

1 A 770 
lb, 4 4 U 

A1 870 
^1,0 4 U 



1 KA 9AA 

1 9A 7A0 

97 Q90 

A PI 710 
^0, 4 1 u 

/too AK A 


OAK 1 r»l 

oUO, xbl 



A f;ao 

A8 800 

ij04 (jUbO 


ion Q A 


Q9 F170 

0^,0 4 b 


"TQ A 
b 4, 4 oU 

00 1 ^A 
0.i, i 4 U 

1 8 orio 

1 Q AQO 


1 '7/1 A fTK A 

1, 4 4y, /OU 

Of*f\ AAA 


*70 OOA 

I /,oZU 

1 '7A 9 KA 


QKA K/l K 

1 O K O 'TA 
iOD,Z /U 




9f; f^OO 



O O K f70 A 


P ^7 A A 

00, /UU 

a QOA 


OA 79K 
yb, 4 ZD 


F^O A80 
uU, bob 

1 <\ A70 
X 0, 4 w 

5 120 

30 470 










































C. I.— 4 


PRODUCTS OF imiA-N A— Continued. 


Tons of Hay. 

Pounds of 


Value of 

Pounds Butter 
and Cheese. 


21 157 


% 1 669 

214. 'V^^ 



, 40 341 

166 407 

26 590 

41 3 9-.R 


5 568 

26 494 

119 703 

8 382 

395 ^f)0 



5 664 

2 062 


6 350 


10 825 

30 812 

2 714 

149 100 

6 892 

116 2'^4 

19 860 

255 200 


1 534 

10 647 

39 37R 

1 711 

57 532 


27 022 

391 O^iO 


9 963 

31 937 

1 R^ n^R 

27 041 

307 850 


4 642 

21 375 

86 384 

16 763 

216 1 00 

ni intnn 

7 290 

37 594 

• 91 397 

19 447 

21 4 350 

Yin vJpcicj 

4 763 

28 488 

1 ^A 


5 890 

88 770 


8 007 

1 OA 1 

X vu, X oo 


286 500 

6 290 

43 017 

1 PiR 7RR 

17 148 

242 600 

2 639 

16 238 

RR f^l Q 

UO, O X 

6 114 

63 380 

7 590 

48 970 

127 100 

3A 1 90 
00, X 00 

1 R9 QOA 

5 800 

32 150 

X C/U, *±Ov/ 


OOj OiiO 

9^0 000 



4 575 

34 735 

87 760 

16 050 

1 90 000 

4 680 

8 700 

145 120 

TTn Tn 1 1 f nti 

6 360 

34 326 

1 1 R 1 AA 

X X U, X vU 

23 270 


3 765 

70 400 

18 970 

227 850 

T-Tpn r\r\ pIcq 

6 100 

92 578 

21 570 

237 980 

6 590 


1 9R Ql Q 

38 R36 

3RR 060 

3 454 

RR Qi^A 


5 400 

X 0, 00 

6 870 


10 795 

91 Q 1 RO 
Zi X 0, xoo 

4 935 

97 1 9Pi 

9AR RR1 
ZiUO, oox 

1 580 

9R'^ AOO 

5 220 

RR f^ftA 
oo, JOU 

8 600 

213 225 

Tp'D'ni'no'Q i 

5 300 

9R ^1^0 

77 F17A 

1 900 

191 QOO 

X ^1 X, oOO 

5 180 


1 9A ^lA 

25 550 

205 720 

24 040 

119 FIAA 

9 700 




^t, i 1 

OU, i IKJ 

99A Fif^A 
^ .!j4, O JU 

0, Jii J 

xoo, X'XO 

o, l^O 

^^1 9^0 

1 1 Q 1 ^A 

X X y, xo w 



224 350 

\1'o vi 

Q 1 p.n 

J, i ou 

9ft OftO 

1 AAA 


48 175 

364 310 

1,0 1 u 

1 7ftO 

R9 9QA 

1 470 

84 870 

AT 1 o T^"> 1 

33 790 

X oo, ooo 

1 R AAA 
X Oj ouo 

9^.0 A^O 

9Q Q^O 

82 180 

10 680 



88 075 

1 f>9 f^7A 

37 770 

392 470 

Af nr (TO n 

4 890 


OU, O 

1 1 A AR'^ 

X X U, vO O 

19 950 

233 3G0 

ilT*0 Tl (TO 

Ol, < 

1 7R A7J. 

X ( O, J i 'X 

8 384 

1 An A^iA 

X4: J,0 JO 







•7 ^71 
1 ,o < X 

f^^ d.9'^ 

OOjIr/i J 


X X 1 ,'iOO 

21 l75 

1 RRl 
xoo, 00 X 

i, 1 i i 




3 oil 

ft *7/l'7 


^ A"^ A^R 

X'iO, V JO 

^R ^Pl^ 
00, J JO 

365 2-^0 

1 , i uu 

■4:0, OuU 

1 1 Fi 7f>A 
X X y, ( OU 

9R 9SA 

^O, ^iOO 

383 140 

1 OA9 


1 AA 9AA 

A1 A 


9'^A A7f^ 

/, i'i'J 


IRA ftFlA 


^"^.ft ^OA 



oy,o ( u 

1 RQA 

ft A f^ fiA 
00, J Jo 

4, you 

ou,y iu 

1 1 ft 1 9A 
1 xo, iZU 

99 99A 

9Fi7 A9?^ 

J ( ,4.i J 

oo nriA 

lift ^9A 

^ R 99A 
xo, iJ^O 

1 R 1 7 9 A 

XOX, t Zi\J 


oq7 1 f;a 

on AAA 

9'^A ftOA 









133', 780 











































Horses and 




Value in 1869. 

3 238 

7 625 

8 546 

15 476 

* 2 761 720 


6 625 

19 412 

15 361 

31 371 


6 416 

12 507 

1 666 

50 420 

9 71 5 52<^ 

T-?pnf nn 

1 957 

6 364 

3 849 

7 212 

3 278 1 95 

1 596 

4 070 

4 720 

10 515 

1 304 369 

Tinnn p 

7 518 

11 949 

14 108 

42 353 

8 31 1 620 


1 687 

4 445 

5 669 

1 AR 009 

X ji\J^ \J\J o 

1 327 1 87 

X, OZf 1 , X 1 


4 738 

10 870 

13 049 

30 368 

6 954 905 


5 313 

13 010 

12 550 

29 965 

9 4^.0 990 






5 068 036 






7~)tv1 P«3<3 

4 865 

1 3 3311 

14 026 

32 384 

5 385 1 32 


6 827 

xo, ouu 

10 746 

42 783 


l~)plfi "wnrp 

5 746 

12 260 

14 820 

33 375 

8 102 145 

3 470 

10 780 

8 460 

25 596 

^ 004 425 

"F'niTnfn in 

6 192 

15 070 

37 903 

6 798 520 

5 462 

1 9 Al Q 

12 004 

53 437 

9AFi Rfi7 

y, Zit:0,UO i 


3 911 

8 550 

1 3 885 

27 255 

5 732 550 

5 564 

1 Fi RF^n 

15 402 

44 375 

\j, uozijOox 

TT^i TYl 1 1 ■f ATI 

6 753 

1 A 1 AO 

13 269 

42 240 

7 f;7r 7qo 
( , 1 u, 1 ou 

4 625 

Q 1 8n 
y, J.OU 

12 568 

32 165 

R 1 1 1 ^70 

U, X X X,0 i \J 

1 1^ Ron 

1 R AnA 

^R Q7f% 
oo, y I o 

1 1 AOO 1 79 
X Xj^iy y, X ( Zi 

1 ^ a7r 

1 9 1 9f; 

^1 AOFi 

1 n RI 7 7Rn 

fi 7^Q 
o, 1 oy 

9A 9RA 

ill, jiD'i 

y, X oy, y ( 

O, f ^ 1 

12 240 

9f; 1 q7 

iiO, XO 1 

A RI FlOfi 
'ir, X y , V y 

6 069 

11 720 

41 120 

7 80R 0R8 
1 , y u, y 00 

3 861 

8 R9n 

10 841 

99 RfiO 

'-i ^RO 7FiFi 
0, ouu, 1 yo 

-T p n Tt 1 n fTQ 

3 795 

J.U, 1 1 u 

11 716 

21 165 

rt, oy y, z ox 

-T A n n Q n Ti 

6 833 

1 n 71 9 

XUj i Xii 

11 775 

45 475 


4 656 

12 360 

12 612 


7 999 970 

T ,1 Tvrr»n op 

6 104 

1 A 97n 

15 720 

78 710 

7 8'>3 326 


38 finn 

OOj O »J V 

8 247 580 

7 425 

1 ^ 7^0 

X Uj y o 

47 050 

AO 538 866 

IvTo ff 1 Tl 

9 1 An 

7 1 1 n 

R OQn 

1.3 975 

9 917 7l Q 
ij, Zf X f , 1 X y 

1 RO 

t>, JLOU 

1 O '7KA 

1 A 71 f; 

9Q Rsn 
Zi y, uo V 

y, ou, ooo 

1 9 ARH 

1 A nnn 

34 145 

f; OAA ^Q^ 
y, y-i'TjOyc) 

\} r\v\ frrr\m PT*Tr 

11 010 

91 R7n 

9A Q^n 
^t, you 

52 317 

1 9 FiRq R«0 

AT Avrrn n 

o,ou J 

1 A Ann 

1 f; n7n 

64 970 

R 9^0 ROO 

0, zo y, ouu 

1 9 B7f; 

90 "^RF^ 


A R9Q 9Q1 

^, O.j0, iOX 

1 Q Qnn 

1 71 A 
X y, 1 X u 

a7 79n 

f; r^l R 9Rn 
y, y X 0, ^uu 

T-^n tI." p 

1 Q Af^n 


1 S Fil f; 
X o, ox o 

AA 7on 

Q 01 9 1 Fio 

Pi Vo 

^ Finn 

7 Ri^n 

9 020 

31 825 

^ AOO 007 
c>, rtuy, uy 1 

Pn fn 1 TYl 

9n Rnn 

1 ^Rn 
X y, oou 

62 000 

1 9 r.i 7 R(^o 

|7 o n /I T^ li 

R 71 n 

0.0,0 i O 

1 A ^Rf^ 
X 1, ouo 


Q 067 79!^ 


1 A Q 1 

1 9 1 Rn 

X ^, X UU 

9'i Asn 

o'^o 1 on 



1 *7 Q OA 

i /,ooU 

1 f; r>nA 

7 ^; R9 >". 

1 9 ORR 7Rn 
X z,uoU, 1 ou 

o, iio 

9 Q7?i 
z,y ( D 

1 RI F. 


1 RA1 9R9 

7 Q9Fi 


11 o A 

A 7 R7f; 
4 <,u < 

in 77"^ 99FL 

Sullivtin .•••^ 

1 1 Aor> 

1 K /) K 


OQ oqr: 

F> 0^0 RAO 
i), y.)y, ouu 





on '7QA 

oo, < oU 

OA Q r. 7 1 f; 
zu, oo < , y X 


o 7nn 

R RAn 

19 485 

707 q7f) 


















































One of the first projected lines of railway under the 
State system and as finished by private companies was 
the old New Albany and iSalem road, from ITew Albany, 
via Salem, Bloomington, Greencastle, Crawfordsville and 
Lafayette, to Michigan City, a distance of nearly two hun- 
dred and ninety miles, through thirteen counties, and de- 
signed to have a branch of sixty-eight miles from Gosport 
to Indianapolis. The lower part of the road runs through 
a rough broken country, then along the sub-carboniferous 
limestone in a fertile section to Lafayette, and from thence 
through a. flat, wet unproductive region to Michigan City. 
The through business of the road is comparatively lights 
but the northern and southern ends of the line, being con- 
nected with direct lines from Indianapolis, do a good trade. 
Many of the best quarries of building stone are fou'nd on 
or near the line of this road, and it will do a heavy trade in 
this material during all future time. This road is intersected 
by the Ohio & Mississippi railway at Mitchell, and by sep- 
arate lines of road from Indianapolis at Gosport, at Green- 
castle, at Carbon, at a point north of Carbon, at Crawfords- 
ville, at Lafayette, and at San Pierre. By these connec- 
tions all portions of the main line are made tributaries to 
the central system, and the trade of all the counties it tra- 
verses may be secured. The articles exported are domestic 
manufactures, grain, timber, building stone and live stock; 
with a considerable trade in ores and coal. 

The Ohio & Mississippi road, from Cincinnati to St. Louis, 
traverses eight counties in the southern part of the State by 



a line one hundred and seventy miles in length, through a 
broken country of medium fertility, and from its position, 
grades, guage, and financial troubles, has failed to do the 
business expected by its progenitors. It crosses the sub- 
carboniferous limestones and sandstone belts and the lower 
part of the coal field, laying open a region rich in mineral 
resources, but these have been less developed than they 
should have been. This line is cut along its course by di- 
rect lines from Indianapolis at the following places : at Law- 
renceburg, at Vernon, Seymour and at Yincennes, and at 
Mitchell by the l^ew Albany & Salem railroad. Thus ev- 
ery part of its length is made tributary to the central sys- 
tem and the resources of all the counties laid under con- 
tribution. The. exports of the region include building ma- 
terials, live stock, grain and coal. 

The Chicago & Great Eastern road, from Cincinnati to 
Chicago, enters the State below Eichmond and passes 
through Newcastle, Anderson and Kokomo to Logans- 
port, where it is joined by a branch from Union via Hart- 
ford and Marion, and at Logansport a branch passes west 
to Peoria, Illinois, and another northwest via San Pierre 
and Crown Point to Chicago. These lines and the old In- 
diana Central railway have been consolidated with eastern 
roads, the whole being now known as the Pittsburgh, St. 
Louis & Cincinnati railway. The first two lines of road 
traverse eight counties, through a fertile section, well sup- 
plied in places with timber, but not containing any impor- 
tant mineral resources. The exports are mostly live stock 
and farm products. These lines of road are intersected by 
lines from Indianapolis at Cambridge City, at Eichmond, 
at Anderson and at Union City, at Kokomo, at Bunker 
Hill, at Logansport, at Ecynolds and at San Pierre, thus en- 
abling the residents along all the lines to reach the center 
of the State in a few hours- The connection with the Peru 



road at Kokomo gives Indianapolis a very direct line to 
Chicago, and at Logansport with a due west line to Peoria. 

The Michigan Central railway crosses only the two coun- 
ties south of Lake Michigan, about forty miles, on its way 
from Chicago to Detroit. The country is comparatively 
worthless for farming purposes, or for live stock, and there 
are no minerals unless bog iron ore be found in paying 
quantities near its line. Sand however is plentiful and is to 
some extent exported. The line connects at Michigan City 
with the line from Indianapolis via Lafayette to that point, 
and gives us a second through line to the Lake. This road 
is hardly considered an Indiana railway. 

The Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana railway 
crosses seven counties next the northern State line, a dis- 
tance of one hundred and fifty-five miles, in this State. The 
fiat, wetj sandy region south of the Lake yields but little 
trade, but farther to the east it enters a fine fertile country, 
containing some good timber and some bog iron ore. The 
exports being mostly grain, fruits, stock and some ores. 
The bulk of the trade^ both of this and the Central road is 
derived from its through connections, and the business re- 
lations of this section have mostly been with the cities to 
the east and west. Connections are made with lines lead- 
ing north from Indianapolis at Lacrosse and at Laporte. 

The Pittsburgh Ft. Wayne & Chicago railway crosses the 
State on a northwesterly line one hundred and twenty miles 
in length, through eight counties north of the "Wabash 
river. In the north west part the country is fiat, swampy 
and comparatively non-productive, but -growing higher, 
drier and better wooded and somewhat better drained to 
the south east. The exports are grain, stock and lumber, 
the only mineral product near the line being bog ores. This 
road connects with the Indianapolis line at Port Wayne, at 
Plymouth and at Wanatah. 




Having mentioned the leading facts connected with the 
railways of the State possessing other termini than at Indi- 
anapolis, it remains for us to mention those centering at 
that point, forming, as we claim, the most perfect system in 
the country, and with their connections constituting the 
real national system. Most of the former local roads have 
consolidated with railways in adjoining States forming long 
lines under single companies, and with new names, but we 
may speak of them as they formerly existed and under for- 
mer names, mentioning the consolidations and new names 
when necessary. Reference may be made to the accom- 
panying outline map in all descriptions of railway lines in 
this State. There has been no effort to delineate all the 
lines outside of Indiana, the aim being to show only the 
more important and direct through routes connecting with 
our own city roads. The map is as nearly correct and up to 
the present date, as nearly as it was possible to get it. 

It may be observed at the start that all the lines enter 
Indianapolis by separate tracks, joining in a union railway "* 
leading to a general passenger station, (two hundred feet 
wide by four hundred and twenty feet long) where nearly 
one hundred trains arrive and depart daily — taking up, 
transferring or leaving, from three to four thousand travel- 
lers, easily and quietly, without loss of time or expense. 
Ko equally convenient arrangement exists in this or any 
other country, and in this as in many other matters Indian- 
apolis is ahead of her sister cities. 

In the consideration of the railway lines connecting at 
Indianapolis we may properly begin with the one first built, 
and pass in succession to others, going westward, north- 
ward, eastward and southward in a circle round the city, 
until we finish the list and arrive at the starting point. 

The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, once a very impor- 



tant channel of trade and travel, eighty-six miles long, 
from the Capital to the Ohio river, was one of the works 
undertaken by the State in 1836, and turned over in an in- 
complete state to a private company by whom it was fin- 
ished as a flat bar road in October 1847. It was immediately 
successful and rapidly increased its business, the stock ris- 
ing far above par. Branch lines were undertaken, exten- 
sive repairs begun, and a reckless expenditure incurred. 
Rival routes, however, were shortly opened to other points, 
the through business of the road rapidly decreased, the mort- 
gages were foreclosed, and the State and stockholders lost 
the value of their stock. The road was bought by the Jef- 
fersonville railway company and is now operated by that 
corporation, the lower part of the line doing a merely local 
business. The main line was eighty-six miles in length, 
traversing five counties, and branch lines traversing three or 
four counties were built from Columbus via Shelbyville to 
Rushville and Cambridge, and from Franklin to Martins- 
ville. The region near the river is broken and of medium 
* fertility, while the country along the northern portion and 
along the branch lines is of good quality and exports a great 
surplus of farm products, live stock and fruits. The tim- 
ber near the river has been largely culled, but a good sup- 
ply of walnut and poplar still exists a few miles back from 
the road along the greater part of its length. Lime is 
burned and good building stone is quarried in great quan- 
tity along the south part of the line and exported to Indi- 
anapolis and elsewhere by the thousand tons and buhr 
stones for mill use are found in Jennings county. Early 
fruits also form a considerable item in the trade of this re- 
gion. The main line connects the Capital with the follow- 
ing flourishing cities and towns, all of them important cen- 
ters for local trade and manufactures, and most of them 
county seats : Madison, Yernouj^ Columbus, Edinburgh, and 



Franklin. The branches also reach several important towns, 
but as these are also connected with Indianapolis by more 
direct lines their mention may be deferred until those roads 
are reached in our review. These branch connections are 
made at Franklin, Edinburgh, Columbus and Yernon, bring- 
ing all the counties east and west and south of the line in 
easy reach of Indianapolis. 

Passing to the west the next road encountered is the Jef- 
fersonville & Indianapolis railway, now consolidate.d with 
and operating the line to Madison as before stated. It runs 
over the Madison line to Edinburgh and Columbus, and 
thence south via Seymour through four counties to Jeffer- 
sonville and Louisville, one hundred and ten miles. From 
Columbus to In(Manapolis the country is the same and the 
resources the same as stated in the review of the Madison 
road, but from Columbus to .Jefiersonville there is a much 
better section than on the lower end of the former road. 
The exports are fruits, timber, stone, cement, farm pro- 
ducts, live stock and domestic manufactures. Connections 
are made with the Ohio & Mississippi road at Seymour and 
at Jeffersonville with a road north to Yernon, and at Louis- 
ville with the southern system of roads by means of the 
great bridge recently built, giving to Indianapolis the only 
direct southern through route without change of cars or 
breaking bulk. The importance of the Jeffersonville line 
as a southern route was fully proved during the war, when 
the armies in the Mississippi valley were almost entirely 
supplied from this point by means of it, and since the war 
the government has selected the lower terminus of the line 
as the depot for military stores. The great bridge lately 
opened at the falls gives Indianapolis* direct lines to ISTash- 
ville, Memphis, Little Eock, New Orleans, Mobile, Savanah 
and Charleston. Our busiiaess men can secure an immense 
trade in this direction with proper effort, and our manufac- 



turers should penetrate all parts of the south and west. 
The cities of Seymour and Jefi'ersonville are found on th^ 
lower portion of the road, and the last constitutes one of 
the group of important cities round the falls of the Ohio 

The Indianapolis & Vincennes road one hundred and 
two miles long, through four counties in the White river 
valley, was first proposed in 1836, and again in 1850, but 
faihnsr.both times for want of funds was revived in 1866 
and finished in 1869. The region opened by this line is 
one of the best in the State, producing a great surplus of 
all the grains, live stock, timber, building stone, ores and 
coal. The resources of this region in ore, stone and coal, 
are comparatively unknown to the mass of the citizens, but 
it is safe to say that they surpass those of any equal section 
in the State, both in quantity^and quality, and that it must 
become the leading supply point for all these products. 

Limestone and freestone for building, slate for grindstones 
and whetstones, and great deposits of glass sand and fine 
clays are met in many places, while the coal beds and iron 
deposits are numerous, extensive and heavy. The timber 
is unusually thick, of varied kinds and immense in quantity. 
The soils are deep and very fertile, the climate mild and th^ 
grain and stock product excessive. -N"o better region than 
the White river valley can be found in the west, and the 
entire trade and its resources should be completely under 
our control and their development aided by a liberal expen- 
diture of capital by our business men. The region trav- 
ersed by this line, though long settled, has had no outlets 
of any importance before the construction of this road, and 
it is yet undeveloped as to its mineral wealth. The towns 
are mostly small, but now rapidly improving. Yincennes 
is the largest on the line, and the oldest in the State and 
perhaps in the west. Connections are made at Martinsville, 



to the east, at Gosport, north to Lafayette, and south to 
New Albany, at Worthington, south over a projected road 
via Bloomfield, Washington, Petersburg and Boonville to 
Rockport at Vincennes, east and west, toward Cincinnati 
and St. Louis, and north and south, to Terre Haute and 
Evansville, and southwest over a Hne in progress to Cairo. 
Thus not only are all parts of this valley permeated by our 
lines of road, but at Vincennes and Ev|insville and Cairo, 
important through connections are secured to the south 
and south west over long railway lines in adjoining and dis^ 
tant Staftes. The Vincennes & Cairo line (now under con- 
trol of the Pennsylvania Central railway) will connect with 
the Mobile & Ohio road at that point, and with the south 
western lines give us the control of an immense southern 
travel and traffic. 

The Terre Haute & Indianapolis railway seventy-five 
railes in length, through foiu- counties joins the Capital and 
the Wabash and by a line just finished through Vandalia gives 
a direct through route to St. Louis. The country along the 
line in Indiana is high, dry and healthy, with good soil, fine 
timber and unfailing water. The important towns of Green- 
castle and Brazil lie on the line and connections with other 
roads are made north and south at Greencastle, and also at 
Terre Haute. The main road and its branches traverse the 
coal region, and as this was the first railway to penetrate it, 
the mines along the line are the best developed in the State, 
and an immense carrying trade is now done in coal, ores, 
stone, lime, fire clays, &c. The iron trade has also rapidly 
increased, five or six furnaces having lately been built on 
or near the line. The road crosses the coal belt at right 
augles to the out crops of the seams opening each one in 
succession and by means of branches to various pits brings 
a large area of coal lands under contribution. The extent, 
quality and other items connected with the coal and ores 



have been already stated, but it may be truly said that the 
mineral wealth of the section has only been indicated not 
developed, and an immense increase in the coal and iron 
product will soon take place making Indianapolis the man- 
ufacturing center of the western States. The thriving cit- 
ies of Greencastle, Brazil and Terre Haute are found on 
this route, all of them, the last one especially, important 
centers of local trade. The Terre Haute line has been 
noted for freedom from accident, good management, 
prompt time and steady success, making better dividends 
than other roads on account of its former monopoly of the 
Western trade and travel, but hereafter it will meet* bitter 
rivalry and competition in that respect, by the following 

The Indianapolis and St. Louis Eoad, now just completed, 
connects those two cities by a line generally parallel to, and 
but a short distance from the Terre Haute, as far as the 
Wabash river, where this road joins the Alton and St. 
Louis line, forming a through line to the last named city. 
As the country, the connecting roads, the mineral and agri- 
cultural resources, and the general products of the section 
traversed are similar to these on the Terre Haute road, 
they need not be again stated, but it may be said the two 
roads are links in great rival consolidated Eastern lines, and 
the struggle between them for the immense trade of this 
section in ores and coal, will inevitably result in giving to 
consumers in Indianapolis a cheaper fuel than can be had 
in any other city in this country. As a matter of course 
the grain, stock, building stone, fire clays, lime, glass sand, 
lumber and other products of the section will share these 
advantages in cheap freights, and the manufacture and 
trade in all these articles will have greater opportunities 
for profit than if located in the region itself. Especially will 
this be the case where several other rival roads are compet- 



iug for similar trade. This line passes through Danville, 
Greencastle, and Terre Haute, in Indiana, and Alton, Illi- 
nois, to St. Louis. 

Besides the last mentioned two roads, there is a third line 
now in progress on an almost parallel course, running due 
west from Indianapolis, via Rockville and Decatur, Ills., 
a distance of one hundred and forty miles, connecting at 
that point with lines to the Mississippi river and beyond. 
The road was begun in 1855, and much work done upon it, 
but monetary difficulties suspended it until the present 
year, when the enterprize was revived, and it is now being 
rapidly forwarded. The region traversed in Indiana and 
in Illinois greatly resembles that along the last two roads, 
being but a few miles north of it, and is unsurpassed in 
agricultural and mineral wealth, timber and live stock. 
The line passes through four counties in this State, contain- 
taining almost unbounded resources in coal and iron, mostly 
in Parke and Termillion counties. These will obtain an out- 
let to market on this road, and assist in cheapening coal at 
this point. The prairie country east of Decatur is ex- 
tremely fertile, and the grain product of the region along 
the line of the road will be enormous. The same is true of 
the line in Indiana, where the timber is heavy and of great 
value. The important towns and cities of Danville, Rock- 
ville, Montezuma, and Decatur, are found on this line. Be- 
side the connection at Decatur with north and south and 
west roads, there are connections southwest at Rockville, 
and north and south at Bainbridge. The entire region in 
Indiana and Illinois, from Indianapolis almost to the Mis- 
sissippi river, traversed by the three last mentioned roads, 
should be subject to the trade of this city, and supplied 
with manufactured articles by us. 

The Indianapolis, Bloomington and Western Railway 
runs via Crawfordsville, Covington, Danville, and Bloom- 



ington, to Pekin and Peoria, Illinois, connecting them with 
lines to the west and northwest. It is now almost com- 
pleted, forming an important through line, and traversing 
four counties in Indiana, in one of the best agricultural sec- 
tions of the State. These contain a great abundance of 
fine timber, building stone, coal, ores, and fire clays, and 
these, with live stock and domestic manufactures, will con- 
stitute the chief articles for export. The section in Illinois 
is a fine dry rolling prairie, of immense capacity for agri- 
cultural products and stock, and also rich in coal, Dan- 
ville being situated in the midst of fine coal mines. The 
coals in Fountain and Warren counties, however, are much 
superior in quality, being lower in the series and of the 
block variety. An immense amount of iron ore also ^ists 
in Fountain county. Important connections are made west 
and northwest at Pekin and Peoria, with lines extending 
through adjacent States. Connections are ako made at 
Bloomington and Danville with lines in various directions, 
and at Crawfordsville with north and south lines. The im- 
portant cities of Crawfordsville, Covington, Danville, Bloom- 
ington and Pekin, are on this line. The region adjoining 
the entire line should contribute to the trade of Indianapo- 
lis, and be supplied with all lines of manufactured articles 
from her shops. 

The Lafayette and Indianapolis railway (now consoli- 
dated with the Cincinnati road) sixty-five miles in length, 
crosses four counties and passes through the thriving towns 
of Lebanon, Thorntown and Lafayette. The whole section 
is very fertile and productive, the portion near Lafayette 
being dry, rich, rolling prairie, while that near Indianapolis 
is flat, formerly wet, and densely covered with heavy tim- 
ber, furnishing immense supplies of walnut, oak and other 
hard woods, and, vast amounts of staves for exportation 
east and to Europe. No coal, ores or building stone are 



found, as the road lies east of the coal field, and the drift 
covers the underlying strata to a great depth. The exports 
are confined to lumber and cooperage, farm products and 
stock, and domestic manufactures. Connections are made 
by this road at Lafayette, east and west by the Toledo road, 
and north to Michigan City and Chicago, over the Few 
Albany and Salem road. The last named road also con- 
nects at several points with east and west lines of road. 

The Peru and Indianapolis road, seventy-five miles long, 
passes through four counties and the thriving towns of No- 
blesville, Kokomo, Tipton and Peru, to the Wabash river, 
where it connects east and west over the Toledo road, and 
north by railroad to Plymouth and La Porte. At Kokomo 
it connects with the Great Eastern road via Logansport, to 
Chicago, giving a very direct line to the latter city. At Pe- 
ru, by the road to Toledo, a short route to the Lakes is also 
obtained. These connections, east, west and north, open 
the whole Wabash valley to our trade and manufactures. 
The country between Indianapolis and Peru is flat, for- 
merly wet, very fertile, and densely timbered. It is new 
and sparsely settled in some sections, having been an Indian 
reservation until a little more than twenty yearfe ago. This 
fine has been the great source of lumber and timber supply 
for our city, and though many millions of feet have been 
exported, the supply is yet ample. The general exports 
are limited to farm products, lumber, timber, and domestic 
manufactures. The drift deposit covers the soil deeply 
until near Kokomo and the Wabash. Good quarries are 
found along the Wabash, much lime is burned and brought 
here for sale. It is probable that at no very distant day a 
railroad will be built from I:^"oblesville northeast through 
Marion to Fort Wayne, traversing a very heavily timbered 
region, and giving it a market and our city a more direct 
route to the Lake and to the pineries of Michigan. 



The old Bellfontaine road (afterward called the Indianap- 
olis, Pittsburg and Cleveland road,) from Indianapolis 
eighty -four miles to Union, on the Statp Line, and then one 
hundred and ninety-eight miles to Cleveland, forming an 
entire line of two hundred and eighty-two miles, traverses 
four counties and passes through the prosperous towns of 
Pendleton, Anderson, Muncie, "Winchester and Union, with 
many others in Ohio, to Cleveland, where it connects with 
the Lake Shore road, and forms part of a great consolidated 
through line to ISTew York. The Indiana section of the 
road follows the rich, well timbered and productive White 
River valley to its source. The drift deposits, here as else- 
where, are very heavy, covering the underlying rocks, 
and but few good quarries are opened. Durable stone is 
had, however, at Pendleton, and great deposits of sand rock 
exist. These are now quarried and brought to Indianapo- 
lis for the glass factories. A fine water power exists at the 
falls of Fall Creek, at Pendleton, which is used for milling 
purposes. The exports of the country adjacent to this road 
are farm and dairy products, timber, lumber, live stock 
and domestic manufactures. The road does an immense 
through freight business, probably bringing more merchan- 
dize to this city than any other line. Connections are 
made with cross lines of road at Anderson, Muncie and 
Union, and at many points in Ohio. A road is now being 
built from Muncie to Port Wayne, connecting there with a 
road northward into the central pine region of Michigan, 
and the assurance is given by the managers of the line, that 
the pine lumber of the north will be delivered in our city 
as cheaply as it is in Chicago or Toledo. If this is done, 
Indianapolis may defy competition in the combined hard- 
wood and pine lumber trade for the entire west and south, 
and must inevitably become the great wooden-ware manu- 
facturing point in the country. This road was the only 



one which furnished a full statement of its business for 
1869, and the manner in which its report was made up re- 
flects the greatest credit on its officers. By this report it 
appears that 570,594 passengers were carried over the line 
in 1869, and 825,464 tons of freight. The entire receipts 
were $3,142,889 91, the net earnings $805,446. The freight 
receipts were $2,090,542, the passenger fares $840,773. 
378,532,021 pounds of freight were shipped to this city, 
and 216,379,157 pounds shipped from it. The consolidated 
line, with its equipments, cost $12,160,636, and its entire 
assets sum up at $14,164,284. This sum includes over* a 
half million dollars invested in the Indianapolis and St. 
Louis road, which is mostly owned and controlled by this 

The Indiana Central railway (now the Indiana division 
of the Pittsburgh, St. Louis and Cincinnati Hallway) sev- 
enty miles to the State line, traverses three counties, and 
passes through Greenfield, Knightstown, Cambridge, Cen- 
terville and Richmond, in Indiana, and many important 
towns in Ohio, ending with Columbus. It forms a link in 
the great through line from Philadelphia via Indianapolis 
to St. Louis and beyond, and is doing an immense freight 
and passenger business. It runs through the best improved 
agricultural region of the State, the farms in "Wayne and 
the adjacent counties comparing favorably with any in the 
Union. The finest grain crops and live stock, and the best 
grade of domestic manufactures come from this section, 
while the trade in agricultural implements is very heavy, 
the prosperous city of Richmond being a noted point for 
their manufacture. The surface is gently rolling, well 
drained by rapid streams which run in deeply eroded chan- 
nels, is covered generally with the drift deposit, and was 
once well timbered, though the forest is now almost gone. 

Building stone is obtained from the lower silurian strata in 
C. I.— 5 



the Whitewater valley, but the mineral products generally 
are insignificant, it being an agricultural region. Connec- 
tions with cross lines (which are mostly governed by the 
same company owning the Central) are made at Cambridge 
to the northwest and southwest and southeast, and at 
Kichmond to northwest and southeast, and at many points 
in Ohio. 

The Cincinnati and Indianapolis Junction road, one hun- 
dred and twenty-four miles long, crosses five counties in 
this State, and passes through the following thriving cities : 
Eushville, Connersville, Liberty, and Hamilton, to Cin- 
cinnati. The road was first attempted in 1836, and 
again in 1849, failing each time on account of pecuniary 
difficulties, but was revived since the war and finished 
in 1868. The shops will be located here. The region it 
opens to market is old, wealthy and settled, finely im- 
proved, once well timbered and possessing great agricul- 
tural capacity. It is more broken, and the river valleys 
deeper than in the region north of it. I^To minerals exist 
except in thin strata of marls and silumen blue limestone, 
found in the Whitewater bluflTs. The local exports are 
mostly farm products, stock and domestic manufactures. 
Good water power exists all along the Whitewater river, 
which is made available for milling and manufacturing 
purposes. Connections are made with other roads north 
and south at Rushville, Connersville, Hamilton, etc. 

The Indianapolis and Cincinnati road (now the Cincin- 
nati, Indianapolis and Lafayette,) one hundred and fifteen 
miles long, passes through five counties, and the thriving 
cities, Shelbyville, Greensburg, and Lawrenceburg, to Cin- 
cinnati. The country, until nearing the Ohio at Lawrence- 
burgh, is generally level, rich, well wooded and productive, 
but the road then follows the eroded winding valley of 
Tanner's Creek, to the Ohio river level, and up that valley 


to Cincinnati. The country along this road is mostly an 
agricultural section, and farm products and domestic man- 
ufactures figure largely in the exports, but immense depos- 
its of good building stone also exist along Flat Rock creek, 
and they are largely quarried and carried on this line to 
Indianapolis and Cincinnati. Connections are made with 
other roads north and south at Shelbyville and Lawrence- 
burgh, and east and west at Fairland and Lawrenceburgh 
— ^bringing all the adjacent country and the "Whitewater 
valley in close reach of Indianapolis. Connection is made 
at Cincinnati with the great route via Parkersburg to 
Baltimore and "Washington. 


"We have enumerated thirteen separate lines of railway, 
entering Indianapohs from different quarters of this and 
adjoining States, most of them now Hnks in long and im- 
portant routes reaching directly to the chief trade centres 
of the Union. Of these thirteen lines, twelve are finished 
and in operation, and the thirteenth, the Indiana and Illi- 
nois Central, is under rapid headway. In addition to these 
there are other proposed lines, which it is safe to say will 
ultimately be constructed and may therefore be mentioned 
in this review. These roads are as follows : 

The Indianapolis, Delphi and Chicago railway, passing 
in an almost direct Une along these points, through portions 
of nine counties, would make the shortest line to Chicago, 
through a generally fine country, gently rolling, well wooded 
and well drained at this end, mostly prairie, and somewhat | 
wet toward the northern terminus. Good building stone'' 
will be found, along and near the line in portions of its 
course, and a plentiful supply of fine timber exists, but the 
line lies east of the coal field. The road, however, would 
do a large through business and obtain a large local trade. 



A company was organized and considerable stock subscrip- 
tion obtained, but tbe enterprise is suspended at present for 
want of aid from counties along its line. 

The Evansville and Indianapolis Eailway Company, was 
organized in 1855, and a large amount of work done along 
the line, which followed a very direct course between Indi- 
anapolis and Evansville, traversing parts of nine counties, 
and opening up one of the most fertile sections, and certainly 
one of the most important mineral and timber regions of 
the State. Monetary difficulties soon after compelled the 
suspension of the work, and since then nothing has been 
done. It has lately been proposed to renew the enterprise, 
and judging by the success of similar efforts on other lines, 
it will certainly be constructed at no distant day. The im- 
mense resources in grain, timber, lime, stone, ore and coal 
it would open to our traders and manufacturers, justifies 
the strongest efforts to build it, for the local trade alone 
would probably support the line. It is to be hoped that it 
will soon be resuscitated. 

Another proposed line of great importance, will leave the 
Peru and Indianapolis road at Noblesville, and pass north- 
east through a fertile, heavily timbered country via Marion 
to Fort "Wayne, connecting at the latter point with pro- 
posed and existing lines to the north and northeast, giving 
the shortest line to the Lake and the pine region. If such 
a line is built it would do a fine business in hard wood and 
pine lumber. 

A line is also proposed from Anderson to Hartford, join- 
ing the present line building north from Muncie through 
Hartford and Bluffton, to Fort Wayne, thus shortening that 
line and giving a still more direct route from Indianapolis 
to the Lakes and to the pine sections of Michigan. 

A line is proposed and will most probably be constructed 
from Rockport on the Ohio, via Booneville, Petersburg, 


Washington, and Bloomfield, to Worthington, on the Indi- 
anapolis and Yincennes road, and perhaps still north ¥ia 
Bowling Green to the Terre Haute line. It will penetrate 
a region very rich in timber, stone, ores and coal, and if 
built should largely contribute to our trade. Other branch 
roads are proposed from the coal field lines, and will doubt- 
less be built as the wants of the country require them, until 
the whole field is traversed with railways as numerous as 
the present county roads.